Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Securing the Quality of Data - 725 Words

2.3 Securing the quality of data Adopting explicit evaluation criteria increases the transparency of the research and provides the researcher with the means to highlight the strengths and limitations of that particular research (Eriksson, P., Kovalainen, A., 2008). According to Eriksson, P., Kovalainen, A. (2008), one of the reasons that lead to a poor-quality research is when a qualitative research is assessed with the help of evaluation criteria adopted from quantitative research and vice-versa. Conducting a quantitative research requires gathering data from a large number of samples whereas in qualitative research, generally, data is collected from a relatively smaller number of participants and the focus is on understanding the participants social world in depth through probing, asking questions and case studies. When conducting a qualitative research, the question shouldn’t be â€Å"How many interviews do I need to do to get my theory accepted†? According to Eriksson, P., Kovalainen, A. (2008) , by asking this question, the logic of quantitative acceptability enters into qualitative research. As mentioned earlier, assessing a qualitative research with the evaluation criteria adopted from quantitative research leads to a poor quality research and vice-versa. Instead, when evaluating qualitative research as a good-quality research, the focus should be on the materials obtained from the interviews, quality of the interviews and the logic through which a researcher makesShow MoreRelatedThe System Development Life Cycle1357 Words   |  6 Pageswith respect to the IIS and its data. In addition, the security policy should include appropriate procedures to ensure local site data and software are properly managed. The IIS applications such as general reader, general user, and site manager need to be created to support the objectives of the policies (Arzt, 2007). In addition, this proposal will apply the System development Life Cycle (SDLC) in developing information security poli cy. A. Process: This project will attempt to address privacyRead MoreJustification Of Disaster Response Protocols1266 Words   |  6 PagesJustification of Disaster Response protocols: All the data of the BOLD pharma organization will be stored on the magnetic tapes. To avoid the risks due to any disaster, it should be kept in the QA department. The other method for securing the data even more further is maintaining the replica of the servers in different locations. The first step which should take if any incident happened as I mentioned like due to the server crash, it should be immediately reported to the higher officials and a ticketRead MoreData And The Standard Model Of Its Representation As Well As The Applications Of Securing Provenance1557 Words   |  7 PagesIn this Chapter, we present the background needed to understand the work proposed in this thesis. As our research mainly concerns with securing provenance, Section 2.1 will cover provenance data and the standard model of its representation as well as the applications of securing provenance. Section 2.2 introduces graph databases that will be used later in storing provenance in our prototype. Section 2.3 explores workflow systems and workflow provenance. Section 2.4 illustrates the main security principlesRead MoreHitech Act ‚Äà ¬ Privacy and Security1175 Words   |  5 Pagescompromises the security the security or privacy of such information. Medical privacy breaches continue to be a serious problem for healthcare and life sciences. Some of the most highly respected healthcare organizations in the country still suffer data breaches, and new breaches make headlines regularly ( Research indicates that utilizing EHR would serve to improve patient care, increase patient safety and simplify compliance in the US healthcareRead MoreUnderwater Wireless Communication Networks Are Affected By Multipath, Large And Variable Propagation Delays1024 Words   |  5 Pagesmalicious attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delays, and low bandwidth of acoustic channels. A complete survey of securing underwater wireless communication networks is presented, and the research challenges for secure communication in this environment are outlined.Acoustic channels have low bandwidth. The link quality in underwater communication is severely affected by multipath, fading, and the refractive The unique characteristics of the underwater acoustic communicationRead MoreAnalyzing Data And Determine The Availability Of Appropriate Data1079 Words   |  5 Pagesanalyse data in order to identify any problems with the data and determine the availability of appropriate data (Becerra-Fernandez Sabherwal 2014). It is only after this stage has occurred, that an ISDMA will decide whether data qualifies for information or not. This stage in knowledge management is crucial for accentuating the validity of data sources by shedding light on important matters. McInerney and Koenig (2011) note that summarizing and analysing data also plays an important role in data qualityRead MoreInformation Systems With Clinical Decision Support1617 Words   |  7 Pages When organizations are implementing information systems with clinical decision support, they hold on to these ten commandments for successful clinical decision support. The creators trust that the key apparatus for health care will be data frameworks that give decision support to clients at the time they decide, which ought to bring about enhanced nature of consideration. Moreover, suppliers make numerous blunders, and clinical decision support can be valuable for finding and an ticipatingRead MoreCryptography, The Most Important Part For Secure Any Business By Securing The Communication Range1668 Words   |  7 PagesABSTRACT CRYPTOGRAPHY is the most important part to secure any business by securing the communication range. In this project important topics of cryptography that should be known in general is discussed . How decoding and encoding in done with the help of cryptography to secure any communication. How it helps to maintain authenticity of any industry or company. Cryptography helps in making transactions by keeping data secure. It also protect passwords, ATM pins etc. from hackers. Cryptography maintainsRead MoreThe Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act Of 1996 ( Hipaa )1685 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom past experiences. While there is still more work to be done, continuing to push for standardization, in combination with legislation (such as the HIPAA), can assist healthcare organizations in successfully designing, implementing, managing, and securing healthcare information technology. Another major consideration is that of training and awareness, which should involve all parties - from healthcare staff to patients. Training and awareness are crucial components, because even â€Å"the best securityRead MoreInformation Security Through Fog Computing Using Data Mining Essay1434 Words   |  6 PagesInformation Security Through Fog Computing Using Data Mining Author Name:Saniksha Bhusappa Department:computer Engineering Collage: MITAOE,Alandi,Pune Email: Author Name:Anand Moon Department:computer Engineering Collage: MITAOE,Alandi,Pune Email: Author Name:Kalyani Gagare Department:computer Engineering Collage: MITAOE,Alandi,Pune Email: Author Name:Subhash Kursunge Department:computer Engineering Collage: MITAOE,Alandi,Pune

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Allegory Of The Cave Vs Social Media Essay - 1779 Words

Did you know that in just three years, the amount of people using social media networks is expected to reach 2.95 billion. That is almost a third of the world’s population. As of 2016, 78 percent of the US population was sharing and tweeting on their social media platforms. Which means 78 percent of our population are living with an impaired perspective of everyday life. In the allegory of the cave, Plato explained what it would be like to experience an impaired perspective of life. So how does the allegory of the cave represent social media today? By using symbolism to show that the real world was not the world of our experience, much like social media outlets perceives in today’s world. Plato in The Republic, described a group of people†¦show more content†¦With all of these media outlets right at our finger tips, we are susceptible to just about any reality we want to dive into. New stories break every day and the scariest part is, it doesn’t have to be true to write about it, or report about it, or tweet about it. These days, anyone with a cell phone can post something on the internet and it will be there forever. First, news of the hack to the Democratic National Committee broke mid-June of 2016. Hackers broke into the servers stealing private emails, campaign correspondence, and opposition research. Then Wiki Leaks got ahold of those emails, made them public and revealed some scandalous situations. In an article written by Jim Sciutto and Pamela Brown called â€Å"Did Russia Hack the Election†, they stated that in October of 2016, the US government publicly announced that it was â€Å"confident† that Russia had hacked the Democratic National Committee and other political organizations of the Democratic Party. (Brown) During this time, the news went on a frenzy saying that Russia had hacked the election. After that, it was a snowball effect, reporting it must be true because then President-elect Trump was repeatedly praised by Vladimir Putin, and reports showed financial ties between Trump and Russia, sparking considerable speculation that this is the reason he would not release his tax returns (Fishbein). So not only was the newsShow MoreRelatedMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words   |  316 Pagesconstitute Chapter 5 was first read, and the Festival of the New Cinema (Pesaro, Italy), which organized the round-table discussion during which the last chapter in this volume was originally presented. The idea of bringing together a number of my essays in a single volume, thus making them more easily available, originated with Mikel Dufrenne, Professor at the University of Paris-Nanterre and editor of the series in which this work was published in French. He has my very warm gratitude. C . M. Cannes

Monday, December 9, 2019

Othello (1528 words) Essay Example For Students

Othello (1528 words) Essay On a recent episode of House, a popular television show, a competitive bicyclist was admitted to the hospital after having a close encounter with death. The doctors completed examination after examination until they concluded that the patient?s illness was the result of his use of illegal paraphernalia. At this point, the doctors had to make a moral decision as to whether or not to report their patient on the basis of his cheating. On one hand, the patient was worshiped by children and his reputation would be ruined if he were to be turned in. Dr. Allison Cameron believed that the patient deserved to be turned in and that the children who worshiped him deserved to know the truth about the patient. She said that the patient ?isn?t who he says he is.? However, Dr. James Wilson questioned, ?Who cares who he says he is In today?s society, just as there was in the House episode, there is a disconnect between appearance and reality. A person?s appearance, how an individual is described fro m what can be seen on the outside, may be far from reality, or what is on the inside. The theme of appearance versus reality, however, is far from being something that has just appeared in recent years. In fact, this theme is present in many of William Shakespeare?s works, specifically Othello, which date back to the late 1500?s and the early 1600?s. The first instance in which the theme of appearance versus reality appears is with Othello. Othello appears to be loved and respected by his peers. And even though most of his peers describe him as the ?valiant Moor?, ?valiant Othello? or the ?brave Moor?, some characters do not truly see Othello as described (Shakespeare I,iii,47-48; I,iii,288). For instance, Iago?s statement of ?I hate the Moor? clearly demonstrates how some characters show abhorrence toward Othello (Shakespeare I,iii,350). Also, during the initial acts of the play, Othello is portrayed as a strong and confident character. However, all of the allegations that Iago mak es about Desdemona being unfaithful to Othello quickly breaks Othello down and he becomes easily ?driven to jealousy? (McCulloch 77). Othello is also socially insecure, which may be attributed to him being a black man in a white man?s world. Not to mention, he is a black man in a high ranking position that requires him to give orders to white men. Additionally, Othello appears to be one who is calm and has self control, even under the most difficult of circumstances. But, Othello turns to rage and revenge in the final acts of the play. In fact, Othello, who had never struck Desdemona before, strikes her during one of their conversations and, on many other occasions, raises his voice at Desdemona. These actions, which are far from the actions of a calm and collected man, surprises other characters, including Lodovicio who makes the following comment: Is this the noble Moor, whom our fill senateCall all in all sufficient? Is this the natureWhom passion could not shake, whose solid vir tueThe shot of accident nor dart of chanceCould neither graze nor pierce? (Shakespeare IV,i,249-253)Othello is not the character that others thought he was. Another instance in which the theme of appearance versus reality appears is within Othello and Desdemona?s relationship. According to Cahn, the love between Othello and Desdemona, the foundation of the story, is itself based on illusion (17). When Othello is describing to Brabantio how Desdemona fell in love with Othello, he makes the following comment:My story being done,She gave my story for my pains a world of sighs. She swore, in faith, ?twas strange, ?twas passing strange,?Twas pitiful, ?twas wondrous pitiful. She wished she had not heard it, yet she wishedThat Heaven made her such a man. (Shakespeare I,iii,157-162)Desdemona, being wooed by the ?hero at the core of this story? and the story of his life, is not in love with, but is infatuated with Othello (Cahn 17). ?She does not know Othello as a man, but only as a fantasy figure? (Cahn 17). In essence, Desdemona is in love with the heroic actions and noble deeds of Othello rather than his inner being, his character, and his personality. Similarly, Othello is not in love with Desdemona as a person, but is in love with Desdemona because of an attitude that Desdemona has shown toward Othello and the respect that she gives him. Othello says that ?She loved me for the dangers I had passed,/And I loved her that she did pity them? (Shakespeare I,iii,166-167). He ?is in love with Desdemona because she has shown him such passion? (Cahn 17). Although Othello as a character and the relationship he had with Desdemona are both good examples of how the theme of appearance versus reality appears in Othello, the prime example of this theme is Iago. All characters in Othello believe that Iago is a sincere, honest and trustworthy character. Othello, when talking about Iago, says, ?A man he is of honesty and trust? and again Othello says, ?I know, Iago, thy honesty and love? (Shakespeare I,iii,281; II,iii,225). Cassio refers to Iago as ?honest Iago? and, when speaking of Iago, states, ?I never knew a Florentine more kind and honest? (Shakespeare II,iii,300; III,i,38). Even Desdemona says ?O, that?s an honest fellow? when referring to Iago (Shakespeare III,iii,5). Roderigo is under the impression that Iago simply wants to help him in his pursuit of Desdemona and, therefore, entrusts his money in the hands of Iago. Perhaps these characters hold these views of Iago because that is how he projects himself. Or perhaps these characters hold these views of Iago because of his good reputation. ?How can anyone set up a reputation of honesty ex cept by being consistently honest over a long period of time (McCulloch 78) They have no reason to distrust a man that declares that ?I am an honest man? (Shakespeare II,iii,244). However, this fa?ade of honesty, trustworthiness and sincerity masks Iago?s evil intentions and his manipulative and deceitful ways (Appearance). In one of his soliloquies Iago proclaims that ?I am not who I am? and on another occasion asks, ?What?s he then that says I play the villain (Shakespeare I,i,65; II,ii,301) Iago believes in cheating and lying for gain and is concerned only about himself (McCulloch 78). The one who others thought was trustworthy mocks those, specifically Othello, who are willing to trust anybody that appears trustworthy, which is demonstrated by the following comment: The Moor is of a free and open natureThat thinks men honest that but seem to be so,And will as tenderly be led by the noseAs asses are. (Shakespeare I,iii,379-383) Additionally, Iago openly tells the audience that he will create a plan that will cause Desdemona to ?make the net that will enmesh them all? (Shakespeare II,iii,326). He even tells Roderigo that he ?hates the Moor? (Shakespeare I,iii,366). Instead of using Roderigo?s money in order to assist him in his pursuit of Desdemona as Iago told him he would, Iago hoards Roderigo?s money. Othello is tricked into believing that Desdemona is having an affair without having any concrete evidence. Even still, Iago runs Cassio out of his position by claiming that Cassio was involved with Desdemona and is the mastermind behind the plot of Roderigo stabbing Cassio. These are not things that a sincere, honest, and trustworthy man would say or do. And it is because of this, that when Iago?s peers find out the truth of his plot and thus his character, his peers no longer associate Iago with ?honest? and ?kind?, but with a ?Spartan dog?, an ?inhuman dog!? and even a ?viper? (Shakespeare V,ii,360;V,I,62; V,ii,284). .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .postImageUrl , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:hover , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:visited , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:active { border:0!important; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:active , .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub7607a9ab7fb786cfc4c1201e540f17b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Articles Of Confederation (527 words) EssayNiccolo Machiavelli once said that ?For the great majority of mankind are satisfied with appearance, as though they were realities and are more often influenced by things that seem than by those that are? This quote sums up the recurring theme that can be found throughout Shakespeare?s play Othello- appearance versus reality. The theme can be found with Othello the character, within Othello and Desdemona?s relationship, and with Iago. The disconnect between appearance and reality causes a discrepancy between what seems to be and what actually is. It is appearances that often disguise reality and just as Aesop once said, ?Appearanc es are often deceiving.? Works CitedAppearance and Reality in Othello. Term Papers Lab. 30 Dec 2008 Cahn, Victor I.. The Plays of Shakespeare A Thematic Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. McCulloch, Helen, and Gary K. Carey. Cliff Notes Shakespeares Othello. Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 2000. Shakespeare, William . Othello, the Moor of Venice. Perrines Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense, Ninth Edition. Thomas R. Arp/ Greg Johnson. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Product and Service Design

Introduction Service design is the introduction of a changed service in the production environment. It starts with new or changed business necessity and ends with a solution that meets existing customer needs. This question requires the description of a service design in Dubai metro (RTA.) Dubai metro RTA is a company in Dubai that deals with the transportation industry such as air, roads, and railway. We are going to discuss a service design in the transport industry.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Product and Service Design specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Phases in the service Design Dubai population is increasing rapidly and, this causes traffic congestion problems. The population is expected to grow by 6.4% annually, forcing the number of people to reach three million by 2017. The economic development in Dubai, due to improved tourism and property development, causes most of the people to live in urban area s. Urban development propagates the necessity of an improved transport service. Dubai metro needs to translate this customer need into a service requirement. This is the first step in its transport service design. In this case, it will generate an automated railway network in order to curb the problem. This railway system will improve efficiency due to its high speed and the large capacity of the train (Stevenson 132). The second stage in service plan involves defining the existing service. The company will evaluate its existing service, to determine what needs to be improved. Dubai has a extremely large public bus system, which is operated by Roads and Transport Authority. The bus system is large and further developed. The problem is that the system is far from accommodating the rapidly increasing demand for transportation service in Dubai. Hence, the need for an improved automated transport system in this country. Dubai is also suffering from a faulty road network in areas such as Dubai-Sharja road. This flawed system causes high traffic congestion in these areas hence the need for an improved transport system (Stevenson 129). The company will establish a service that will solve the current problems. In this case, Dubai Metro will develop an improved, automated railway system. The improved trains will be equipped with air condition and modified to meet Dubai’s customer needs. The train will have a capacity of 500 passengers seated and a space of more standing. It will have women and children section different from men. Maintenance of the train will be seriously considered due to high heat and dust in Dubai. Since the train is driverless, it will be equipped with video surveillance, a control system and a public address system. These trains will be expected to carry 1.2 million passengers on a daily basis and around 355 million passengers per annum. The improved rail system will enhance reduction in traffic congestion and meet the rapidly increasing pu blic transport demands. This service will be implemented on 2 phases for a period of 10 years (Stevenson 131).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company will develop quality goals that the new or changed service will be aiming to meet. Dubai Metro will come up with goals such as delivering quality service to customers. Automated railway system will ensure that passengers reach their destination in time. Passengers will also travel in comfort as compared to traveling by a bus. Implementation of new services should be easy. Improved service consistency, services should be provided consistently to meet the customers need. Enhance improved information and technology. The automated railway system is a form of advancement in technology this because the system will be computerized. The company will also formulate cost targets. This will involve carrying out a cost-profit analysis , to determine whether the project is beneficial (Stevenson 124). The construction of an automated railway system will incur operating costs a long with labor costs and power. These costs are expected to be met through fares, revenue from advertisement space and finances from the government. The company will develop a pilot project to serve as a stereotype. This project will help to evaluate how the service will fair in the market i.e. Dubai. This will involve two trains covering 100km and traveling at 90km/hr. This test will be carried out for a period of six months before the official start of the main project. In this stage, it will detect problems, which may affect the project. The company will establish a solution, to ensure that the main project will be flawless (Stevenson 125). Finally, after developing a stereo type the developed service needs to be documented. Documentation involves providing information about a project. It describes how the project will be managed and gove rned, to both users and other stakeholders. Dubai Metro will put on paper the improved automated railway system. This will enable all the stakeholders to understand the whole system. Documentation of a highly risk project needs to provide comprehensive details on how to initiate, plan, execute and complete the project. The automated railway system is a highly risky project, so it requires full documentation. Conclusion During the last few decades, economic conditions in industrialized countries have changed. It has changed from manufacturing based economy to information and service based. This shows the importance of service industry particularly service design. It is essential for a company to develop a service design in order to meet the ever-increasing market demand. As a result of advancement in information technology, service design is a serious concern in the service industry.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Product and Service Design specifically for yo u for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Work Cited Stevenson, William. Operations Management. New York: McGraw-hill, 2006. This essay on Product and Service Design was written and submitted by user Avah S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on Report

Samuel Johnson, following in the footsteps of other great English critics, was a great poet. Johnson’s poetry was different from any other writer in the late eighteenth century. He used poetry as a tool for an escape from the reality of life. Johnson would also use poetry as a tool for expression of emotion and praise for accomplishment. When Johnson wrote a poem of praise or to express emotion he would still convey his message beyond reality. He would emphasize an event so immensely that it would seem unrealistic. If being real, or reality, is something sensable, then The Vanity of Human Wishes is the poem in which Johnson best display’s these tools of writing for the purpose of escape. With all of his undertakings, from politics to writing critiques, Johnson used writing poetry as his release from reality and the hardships in his life. In 1780 Samuel Johnson wrote â€Å"A Short Song of Congratulation.† It is a poem of praise to the actions of the nephew of a fr iend of Johnson. In the poem Johnson depicts the the young man defying the authority of his wealthy family and squandering a substantial inheritance. He is writing about more than the escape of a friend’s nephew, he is writing about his escape from a less than flawless childhood. In the poem Johnson relays to his subject, â€Å"If the guardian or the mother / Tell the woes of willful waste, / Scorn their counsel and their pother, / You can hang or drown at last† (25-28). Johnson is using the life and actions of another to relay the struggles he went through as a child to become successful. Johnson’s subject had to separate himself from his prominent family in order to be his own man, or â€Å"hang or drown at last,† which symbolizes a freedom to live of die as he wishes. When Johnson uses the word â€Å"guardian† in line 25 he is referring to his own childhood but not to his parents. He groups his hardships, such as his nerve disease and appearance from a different disease, ... Free Essays on Report Free Essays on Report Samuel Johnson, following in the footsteps of other great English critics, was a great poet. Johnson’s poetry was different from any other writer in the late eighteenth century. He used poetry as a tool for an escape from the reality of life. Johnson would also use poetry as a tool for expression of emotion and praise for accomplishment. When Johnson wrote a poem of praise or to express emotion he would still convey his message beyond reality. He would emphasize an event so immensely that it would seem unrealistic. If being real, or reality, is something sensable, then The Vanity of Human Wishes is the poem in which Johnson best display’s these tools of writing for the purpose of escape. With all of his undertakings, from politics to writing critiques, Johnson used writing poetry as his release from reality and the hardships in his life. In 1780 Samuel Johnson wrote â€Å"A Short Song of Congratulation.† It is a poem of praise to the actions of the nephew of a fr iend of Johnson. In the poem Johnson depicts the the young man defying the authority of his wealthy family and squandering a substantial inheritance. He is writing about more than the escape of a friend’s nephew, he is writing about his escape from a less than flawless childhood. In the poem Johnson relays to his subject, â€Å"If the guardian or the mother / Tell the woes of willful waste, / Scorn their counsel and their pother, / You can hang or drown at last† (25-28). Johnson is using the life and actions of another to relay the struggles he went through as a child to become successful. Johnson’s subject had to separate himself from his prominent family in order to be his own man, or â€Å"hang or drown at last,† which symbolizes a freedom to live of die as he wishes. When Johnson uses the word â€Å"guardian† in line 25 he is referring to his own childhood but not to his parents. He groups his hardships, such as his nerve disease and appearance from a different disease, ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

40+ Amazing Gifts for Writers (That Your Friend Will Love)

40+ Amazing Gifts for Writers (That Your Friend Will Love) 40+ Amazing Gifts for Writers That Will Help You "Win" Christmas 'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through Reedsy, the writers were stirring, to make gift-giving easy.That’s right, Christmas is around the corner! We know from personal experience just how hard it is to shop for authors, so we put in the hard work for you and created this guide of usual and unusual gifts for writers in your lives. It’s split into four sections (differentiated by price points) for easy access.We hope that it helps you during the annual holiday crunch. Simply browse below to find the perfect gift for your writer friends - or even for yourself. Merry Christmas shopping, everyone!Below $101. â€Å"Jane Austen† Socks ($9)(Image: Stata)Is there anything cooler in the world than Mrs. Weasley’s clock? (For the Muggles out there, it’s a clock that lets you know where the people in your life are at any given moment in time, which isn’t stalkerish at all.) Well, we have good news for you: it now exists! Built by Stata, it use s technology and GPS and relay your loved ones’ coordinates on a clock face that has such options as â€Å"Home,† â€Å"Friends,† â€Å"Out,† â€Å"Transit,† â€Å"Airport,† â€Å"Lost,† and â€Å"Hospital.† There’s no â€Å"Mortal Peril† option yet - at least not until Voldemort actually pays us a visit in our Muggle world.41. Writing workshops ($120-$500)A writing workshop is literally the gift that will keep on giving, as the knowledge that participants gain from it will benefit them in the long-run.   It’s a great way to encourage writers, both amateur and experienced. Check out these online writing courses below to see if one of them could make the perfect Christmas gift:Catapult24PearlStreetWriter’s Digest UniversityGotham Writers Community42. Subscription to Kindle Unlimited ($120)Two words: unlimited reading. Kindle Unlimited gives its members the freedom to explore over 1 million titles, thousands of audiobooks, and any magazine. This might be the only thing better than a Kindle - although this subscription paired with a Kindle wouldn’t be too shabby, either.These items have been chosen independently by the team at Reedsy, but if you buy something through our post, we may get a small share of the sale. If you have any suggestions for other great gifts for writers, please share them in the comments below!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Identify the main barriers that constrain the development of renewable Essay

Identify the main barriers that constrain the development of renewable energy in a specific location, and suggest ways to overcome these. (We recommend that you only consider one type of renewable energy) - Essay Example The utter dependence of man on this form of energy is not very encouraging, for the simple reason that this source of energy, as its name suggests, is not a permanent supply of energy and will eventually run out. On the other hand, the renewable energy sources provide hope as they are in plentiful supply, and need just to be harnessed to solve the energy crisis faced today. Ever since the fossil fuel energy availability explosion in the 19th century, the demand rate for energy has been on an exponential increase. The increased demand is depleting the energy reserves at a much faster rate than what had been previously anticipated, and this has led us today to a very crucial point in time where we have to find and tap other sources of energy if we desire to keep our lives tuned in to the same style as we're used to. The one most relevant factor and the biggest contributor to this energy problem is the phenomenal increase in the world population, which is expected to rise even more and at an increased rate, if not at the present rate, in the future. Another reason is that we have accustomed our lifestyles according to the notion that we would always have unlimited access to freely available energy, and our current practices and economies run on the immediate and unstoppable supply of huge quantities of energy. Educational, economical, social and technological sectors all rely on this supply of energy and are designed accordingly. However, we are about to face a very serious challenge, one that will have to be fought on an international scale and would need our combined effort to overcome. The energy demands in the world are expected to rise by 1-2% every year for many decades (Physics Today 2004), and the fact that many of our energy supplies will, at this rate, deplete within an average lifespan of a human being is not helping at all. The energy supplies that we have either depend upon the amount stored as fossil fuels and other stores like nuclear fuel in the earth, or the amount of energy supplied by the sun that we can harness economically through different methods (Physics Today 2004). Both the factors have their own sets of problems, but the problems and constraints on the development of renewable energy provided by the sun directly are to be considered in this paper. Case in point is the development of renewable forms of energy in the US. Energy demands can be measured in quads (Q), where 1Q = 1015 BTU, which can be approximated to 1.06 x 1018 joules (Physics Today 2004). The energy consumption of the US forms about a quarter of the total energy consumption of the world, roughly a 100Q per year, and this consumption is expected to ri

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Contemporary Documentaries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Contemporary Documentaries - Essay Example Ð ¡ontemporary documentaries inherently present a national identity. Such national identity indicated through the films depicts shared values including collective identity and instilling communal sense. For instance, The Two Escobars reflects effects of class stratification on imperative economic activities including sports. Sporting activities such as football can spur unity in a given nation when citizens initiate loyalty in supporting their national team. However, the documentaries may also reflect inherent challenges faced by the society in relation to leadership and economic disparities effects. Though band members in Metallica: Some Kind of Monster documentary can overcome financial challenges by recruiting a performance team, they face struggles in leadership, especially between Ulrich and Hetfield. The leadership struggles greatly affects their performance and Towles has to mediate. The aforementioned personal differences in the documentary reflect a modern society where specific organizations fail to deliver their mandate due to leadership issues mainly resulting from personal differences. Similarly, This is Spinal Tap struggles to promote their newly produced album under less innovative leadership that also faces financial challenges. The plight of poor marketing strategies and financial problems presents many challenges to the contemporary society especially corporate organizations. Various contemporary films including sports , mock, investigative, and rock documentaries possess various similar primary features that include informative and influential nature.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Genres of Literature Essay Example for Free

Genres of Literature Essay Genres of literature are important to learn about. The two main categories separating the different genres of literature are fiction and nonfiction. There are several genres of literature that fall under the nonfiction category. Nonfiction sits in direct opposition to fiction. Examples from both the fiction and nonfiction genres of literature are explained in detail below. This detailed genres of literature list is a great resource to share with any scholars. Types of Nonfiction: Narrative Nonfiction is information based on fact that is presented in a format which tells a story. Essays are a short literary composition that reflects the author’s outlook or point. A short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative. A Biography is a written account of another person’s life. An Autobiography gives the history of a person’s life, written or told by that person. Often written in Narrative form of their person’s life. Speech is the faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one’s thoughts and emotions by speech, sounds, and gesture. Generally delivered in the form of an address or discourse. Finally there is the general genre of Nonfiction. This is Informational text dealing with an actual, real-life subject. This genre of literature offers opinions or conjectures on facts and reality. This includes biographies, history, essays, speech, and narrative non fiction. Nonfiction opposes fiction and is distinguished from those fiction genres of literature like poetry and drama which is the next section we will discuss. Genres of Fiction: Drama is the genre of literature that’s subject for compositions is dramatic art in the way it is represented. This genre is stories composed in verse or prose, usually for theatrical performance, where conflicts and emotion are expressed through dialogue and action. Poetry is verse and rhythmic writing with imagery that evokes an emotional response from the reader. The art of poetry is rhythmical in composition, written or spoken. This genre of literature is for exciting pleasure by beautiful, imaginative, or elevated thoughts. Fantasy is the forming of mental images with strange or other worldly settings or characters; fiction which invites suspension of reality. Humor is the faculty of perceiving what is amusing or comical. Fiction full of fun, fancy, and excitement which meant to entertain. This genre of literature can actually be seen and contained within all genres. A Fable is a story about supernatural or extraordinary people Usually in the form of narration that demons trates a useful truth. In Fables, animals often speak as humans that are legendary and supernatural tales. Fairy Tales or wonder tales are a kind of folktale or fable. Sometimes the stories are about fairies or other magical creatures, usually for children. Science Fiction is a story based on impact of potential science, either actual or imagined. Science fiction is one of the genres of literature that is set in the future or on other planets. Short Story is fiction of such briefness that is not able to support any subplots. Realistic Fiction is a story that can actually happen and is true to real life. Folklore are songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of a person of â€Å"folk† that was handed down by word of mouth. Folklore is a genre of literature that is widely held, but false and based on unsubstantiated beliefs. Historical Fiction is a story with fictional characters and events in a historical setting. Horror is an overwhelming and painful feeling caused by literature that is frightfully shocking, terrifying, or revolting. Fiction in which events evoke a feeling of dread in both the characters and the reader. A Tall Tale is a humorous story with blatant exaggerations, swaggering heroes who do the impossible with an here of nonchalance. Legend is a story that sometimes of a national or folk hero. Legend is based on fact but also includes imaginative material. Mystery is a genre of fiction that deals with the solution of a crime or the unraveling of secrets. Anything that is kept secret or remains unexplained or unknown. Mythology is a type of legend or traditional narrative. This is often based in part on historical events, that reveals human behavior and natural phenomena by its symbolism; often pertaining to the actions of the gods. A body of myths, as that of a particular people or that relating to a particular person. Fiction in Verse is full-length novels with plot, subplots, themes, with major and minor characters. Fiction of verse is one of thegenres of literature in which the narrative is usually presented in blank verse form. The genre of Fiction can be defined as narrative literary works whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact. In fiction something is feigned, invented, or imagined; a made-up story. The Oxford English Dictionary is a great place to consult for any further definitions of the different genres of literature explained here.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Aware of Surroundings, Unaware of Self Essay --

In Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Tell Tale Heart, both protagonists are stricken with hypersensitivity. And ultimately, the acute senses of Roderick Usher from FHU and of the narrator from TTH prevent them from recognizing their own culpability. One would expect that through their acute awareness, Roderick Usher and the narrator would acquire a greater recognition of their own faults. Yet, strangely, both characters are unable to recognize their own culpability in the deaths of those around them. Once readers analyze the distracted behaviors of both characters as well as the parallel language of Poe, they will realize that Usher and the narrator accuse their peers of their own flaws because they are truly unaware of their own weaknesses. It becomes clear that both character’s hypersensitivities cause them to be overly distracted by their surroundings; and they are therefore too distracted to recognize their own faults. Ush er’s inability to perform basic human functions gives evidence to the magnitude with which his hypersensitivity disrupts his daily life. Similarly, the narrator in TTH’s obsession with the old man’s eye distracts him from thinking rationally. The narrator’s distracted state causes him to rationalize his crime, rather than recognizing his responsible for the murder. Ultimately, the hypersensitivity of both characters is a hindrance to their self-awareness, as it causes them to be in a perpetual state of distraction, and consequently both characters are unable to recognize responsibility for their own missteps. Before analyzing Poe’s stories, it is essential to recognize that both Usher and the Narrator suffer from hypersensitivity as demonstrated by their... ...eart!" (TTH). Usher and the narrator project different personas, Usher calls his friend â€Å"mad† while the narrator calls the police villains, yet they both exude their own personal flaws onto their counterparts. Usher’s rant attests to the confused state his mind was in. His inability to perceive his own madness is manifest when he declares his friend â€Å"madman†, rather than recognizing his own irrational behavior. Likewise, the narrator in TTH calls the police â€Å"villains†, at the moment when evidence of the extent of his own villainous is revealed. Although he willfully murders an old man, the narrator calls the police villains. The fact that both characters chose to project their flaws onto others, rather acknowledging their own faults gives testimony to the fact that both of Poe’s characters lacked the self awareness necessary to recognize their own shortcomings.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Newspaper Reviews

Complete three reviews of newspaper / magazine articles using the given template. A sample review has been attached for your reference. All articles should be on one of the topics below and topics should not repeat. Transport Equality Rich-poor Gap Science Technology Culture Natural Disaster Ageing Population Teenage Issues EducationYou may use print and non-print articles. Articles should be dated no earlier than October 2013. Your reviews should be typed out. Articles used must be included in your reviews. For print articles, include the original article in your reviews. For non-print articles, please print them out with your review. Please print out your reviews for submission.Deadline: 1st English lesson in Term 1 2014review template Name & index no.ClassTopic(s)Title of articleDate of articleSourceIssue(s) Summary of main concern(s) of the articlePoints of view Perspectives of the people concerned (give at least 2 perspectives)Consequences Possible negative & positive effects of the issue(s)Evidence / Data Statistics, examples, anecdotes, etc.Vocabulary Useful words & phrases related to the issuePersonal Opinion Your personal view on the issueSample Review Name & index no. Jean Grey (10) Class 3S4 Topic(s) Food & Health, Media Title of article 14 F&B firms pledge to curb ads aimed at kids Date of article October 30, 2012 Source The Straits TimesIssue(s)Summary of main concern(s) of the article Obesity is on the rise in Singapore and it is believed that advertising influences what children choose to eat. The Singapore government has introduced an initiative to stop advertising unhealthy foods to children from January 1 2013 in order to fight obesity.Points of viewPerspectives of the people concerned (give at least 2 perspectives) Health Promotion Board (HPB) chief executive: F&B companies’ pledge is â€Å"an important first step†, given that advertising has a significant impact on children’s food choices. McDonald’s spokesperson: The company has introduced more healthy food options. It will support the initiative to stop advertising in media channels where children make up more than 35 per cent of the audience. NTU Associate Professor: It is doubtful whether the changes will have a lasting impact on children’s eating habits as children are increasingly exposed to social media which is hard to regulate.ConsequencesPossible negative & positive effects of the issue(s) If the initiative is successful, it would curb obesity which would in turn lower the proportion of children at high risk of chronic ailments. If the initiative is unsuccessful, it would have no impact on obesity which is on the rise.Evidence / DataStatistics, examples, anecdotes, etc. Research has shown that advertising influences what children buy or choose to eat. About 9 per cent of children here are obese, putting them at a higher risk of chronic ailments like diabetes as they grow older. A British study found that children aged six to 13 were more likely to want to eat fatty and sugary foods after watching commercials for unhealthy food on TV.VocabularyUseful words & phrases related to the issue Food and beverage firms, initiative, curb advertising, chronic ailments, saturated fats, trans fats, nutritional criteria, dietary guidelines, regulations restricting food advertising, HPB’s healthier choice symbol, wholesome Personal OpinionYour personal view on the issue I think that the initiative is a good move by the government as it promotes greater social responsibility on the part of F&B firms. It also sends out a strong message to the public that obesity is a serious concern that demands our immediate attention and action.Template adapted from Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Miss Essay

A simple break in the chain of infection by always using the Standard Infection Control Precautions (SICPs) can save the NHS thousands of pounds every year not to mention saving patients’ lives. Cleanliness Champions have been put in place to make sure Standard Infection Control Precautions are implemented within health care settings. MRSA (Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) is one example of the staphylococcus family common bacteria (BBC Health–MRSA). There are many strains of MRSA and many people carry it in their throat, nose and skin folds. MRSA is an infectious agent and can live on the body for example in eczema, varicose and decubitus ulcers, this acts like a reservoir providing ideal conditions for the MRSA to lie in skin folds and in wounds. For the bacteria to exit the portal it can simple be spread from skin to skin contact. To break the chain of infection the patient should wash their hands. However, not practising good hygiene gives the bacteria a means of transmission. The bacteria will wait for a portal of entry; this could be another patient touching contaminated skin. There have been a number of campaigns to eradicate the transmission of MRSA, and one of them is from the World Health Organisation â€Å"Save lives clean your hands†. This campaign is for Health Care workers to assess within their own departments how often hand hygiene is being carried out by their colleagues (WHO 2012). Hand hygiene is considered one of the most effective measures in reducing and preventing the incidence of avoidable illness, in particular HAI. All staff within health care settings should be aware of this and perform hand hygiene effectively and in a timely fashion (Health Protection Scotland (HPS) May 2009). There are three main types of hand hygiene. Social Hand Hygiene which involves using soap and water. Hygienic Hand Hygiene is using antiseptic hand cleansers from a soap dispenser and then there is Surgical Scrub which involves scrubbing the hands and forearms with antiseptic cleansers. Each hand decontamination process uses a seven step technique. The 5 moments for hand hygiene guidelines explain when hand hygiene should be used (WHO 2009). PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) can also be used to protect against HAIs. PPE consists of gloves, aprons, face masks and goggles. When dealing with potential infections a risk assessment should be done before dealing with the threat of the infection being transmitted. The risk assessment should include whether or not you may need to wear gloves or aprons. Eye protection should be used for theatre staff due to a huge potential of blood splashes. Sharps include needles, scalpels, stitch cutters, glass ampoules and any sharp instrument. The main hazards of a sharps injury are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV. (Royal College of Nursing 2005). All sharps must be handled and used with a great deal of care and disposed of according to the Standard Infection Control Precautions (SICPs). If there has been an incident of a needle stick injury it must be reported and documented as required. All in all the Cleanliness Champions programme will help Health Care workers understand the importance of Infection control and hopefully it will create new generation of Nurses who will be vigilant to how important hand hygiene is. References BBC Health – MRSA (2012), What is MRSA, [On-line], Available: http://www. bbc. co. uk/health/physical_health/conditions/mrsa. shtml [17 March 2012] Health Protection Scotland (HPS) (May 2009), National Hand Hygiene NHS Campaign Compliance with Hand Hygiene – Audit Report Health Protection Scotla nd (Report): Available: http://www. hps. scot. nhs. uk/haiic/ic/ nationalhandhygienecampaign. aspx [17 March 2012] Royal College of Nursing, (2005). Good Practice in Infection Prevention and Control, Guidance for Nursing Staff, Vol. 1, pp. 7-8 WHO (2009) WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health care: a summary, [Online] Available: http://whqlibdoc. who. int/hq/2009/WHO_IER_PSP_2009. 07_eng. pdf WHO (2012), Your action Plan for Hand Hygiene Improvement Template, Action Plan for WHO Framework, Inadequate/Basic Results, [On-line], Available: http://www. who. int/gpsc/5may/EN_PSP_GPSC1_5May_2012/en/index. html [17 March 2012]a

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The History of Apple Computers

The History of Apple Computers Before it became one of the wealthiest companies in the world, Apple Inc. was a tiny start-up in Los Altos, California. Co-founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, both college dropouts, wanted to develop the worlds first user-friendly personal computer. Their work ended up revolutionizing the computer industry and changing the face of consumer technology. Along with tech giants like Microsoft and IBM, Apple helped make computers part of everyday life, ushering in the Digital Revolution and the Information Age. The Early Years Apple Inc.- originally known as Apple Computers- began in 1976. Founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak worked out of Jobs garage at his home in Los Altos, California. On April 1, 1976, they debuted the Apple 1, a desktop computer that came as a single motherboard, pre-assembled, unlike other personal computers of that era. The Apple II was introduced about a year later. The upgraded machine included an integrated keyboard and case, along with expansion slots for attaching floppy disk drives and other components. The Apple III was released in 1980, one year before IBM released the IBM Personal Computer. Technical failures and other problems with the machine resulted in recalls and damage to Apples reputation. The first home computer with a GUI, or graphical user interface- an interface that allows users to interact with visual icons- was the Apple Lisa. The very first graphical interface was developed by the Xerox Corporation at its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the 1970s. Steve Jobs visited PARC in 1979 (after buying Xerox stock) and was impressed and highly influenced by the Xerox Alto, the first computer to feature a GUI. This machine, though, was quite large. Jobs adapted the technology for the Apple Lisa, a computer small enough to fit on a desktop. Spiderstock / Getty Images The Macintosh Computer In 1984, Apple introduced its most successful product yet- the Macintosh, a personal computer that came with a built-in screen and mouse. The machine featured a GUI, an operating system known as System 1 (the earliest version of Mac OS), and a number of software programs, including the word processor MacWrite and the graphics editor MacPaint. The New York Times said that the Macintosh was the beginning of a revolution in personal computing. In 1985, Jobs was forced out of the company over disagreements with Apples CEO, John Scully. He went on to found NeXT Inc., a computer and software company that was later purchased by Apple in 1997. Over the course of the 1980s, the Macintosh underwent many changes. In 1990, the company introduced three new models- the  Macintosh Classic,  Macintosh LC, and  Macintosh IIsi- all of which were smaller and cheaper than the original computer. A year later Apple released the PowerBook, the earliest version of the companys laptop computer. Getty Images / Getty Images The iMac and the iPod In 1997, Jobs returned to Apple as the interim CEO, and a year later the company introduced a new personal computer, the iMac. The machine became iconic for its semi-transparent plastic case, which was eventually produced in a variety of colors. The iMac was a strong seller, and Apple quickly went to work developing a suite of digital tools for its users, including the music player iTunes, the video editor iMovie, and the photo editor iPhoto. These were made available as a software bundle known as iLife. In 2001, Apple released its first version of the iPod, a portable music player that allowed users to store 1000 songs in your pocket. Later versions included models such as the iPod Shuffle, iPod Nano, and iPod Touch. By 2015, Apple had sold 390 million units. serts / Getty Images The iPhone In 2007, Apple extended its reach into the consumer electronics market with the release of the iPhone, a smartphone that sold over 6 million units. Later models of the iPhone have added a multitude of features, including GPS navigation, Touch ID, and facial recognition, along with the ability to shoot photos and video. In 2017, Apple sold 223 million iPhones, making the device the top-selling tech product of the year. Under CEO Tim Cook, who took over Apple after Jobs death in 2011, the company has expanded, releasing a new generation of iPhones, iPads, iMacs, and MacBooks, along with new products such as the Apple Watch and the HomePod. In 2018, the tech giant became the first U.S. company to be worth $1 trillion.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

What to Expect During a Grad School Interview

What to Expect During a Grad School Interview Knowing what to expect during a grad school interview is key to effectively answering the questions youre asked. Graduate school acceptance rates in 2017 were approximately 22% for doctoral programs and 50% for masters degree programs, according to the Council of Graduate Schools. The interview is your opportunity to show the admissions committee the person you are beyond test scores, grades, and portfolios. Describe Yourself Interviewers often begin by asking applicants about themselves to put them at ease and for the interviewers to get a sense of who the applicants are as individuals. Admissions officers and faculty want to know what motivates you as a student and how your personal interests relate to your goals as a graduate student. Some common questions are: Tell me about yourself.What are your strengths and weaknesses?What do you believe your greatest challenge will be if you are accepted into this program?How would your professors describe you?Describe your greatest accomplishment.Why should we choose you over another candidate?Are you motivated? Explain and provide examples.What would you change about yourself and why?If you could have dinner with anyone, living or dead, who would it be? Why?What do you do in your spare time?What volunteer experiences do you have?What contribution have you made to your department or school?What was the last movie that you saw?What was the last book that you read? Describe Your Professional Goals Personal questions often segue into ones about your professional plans and interests. These arent limited to the graduate program to which youre applying. Be prepared to talk about what you may do if you arent admitted to grad school as well as what you plan to do upon graduation. Interviewers ask these questions to get a sense of how much thought you have put into your plans. If youre not accepted into graduate school, what are your plans?Why did you choose this career?How will you be able to make a contribution to this field?What are your career goals? How will this program help you achieve your goals?How do you intend to finance your education?What do you plan to specialize in? Describe Your Academic Experiences Academic institutions want to make sure theyre bringing in students who will become positive members of the departmental community and will develop healthy faculty relationships. Your experience as an undergraduate may indicate how good a fit the program is for you. In college, what courses did you enjoy the most? The least? Why?Describe any research project youve worked on. What was the purpose of the project, and what was your role in the project?In what ways have your previous experiences prepared you for graduate study in our program?Tell me about your experience in this field. What was challenging? What was your contribution?What skills do you bring to the program?How will you contribute to your mentors research?Why did you choose to apply to our program?What do you know about our program, and how does it align with your goals?What other schools are you considering? Why?If you could change one thing about your undergraduate college, what would it be?Tell me about a professor who you dont like. Why? Describe Your Problem Solving and Leadership Skills Grad school can be a stressful time for even the most successful students. There will be times when you will be pushed to your intellectual limits and must find your own way forward. Interview questions about your leadership skills and problem-solving abilities are a way for admissions advisers and faculty to understand how you function by yourself and in a group during demanding times. Explain a situation in which you had a conflict and how you resolved it. What would you do differently? Why?What do you believe can be determined about an applicant at an interview?Define success.How well do you handle stress?Discuss a situation in which you showed leadership ability.Do you think one person can make the world a better place? Why or why not?How will you make the world a better place?Explain an ethical dilemma that you faced and how you dealt with it. Tips for a Winning Grad School Interview Experts and academic admissions officers offer these hints for having a positive grad school interview.   Practice your answers: Now that you know some of the questions to expect, think about how youd respond. Write down your thoughts to organize them, but dont memorize them or you might come across as stiff during the interview.Think of relevant personal stories: These stories demonstrate how your life experiences have led you to grad school.Dont forget about funding: Higher education is very expensive, and many graduate programs offer their students teaching assistantships or grants to help them defer costs.Interview your interviewers: You want to make sure youll be studying with faculty who share your academic goals and intellectual interests. Think of questions that youd like to ask about the culture of the program and how students and faculty interact.Be yourself: Youre committing yourself to a year or more of intense academic study, and grad school isnt cheap. If you cant honestly tell your interviewers why you want to be admitted to their program, that may be a sign that that prog ram wouldnt be a good fit. Sources 2017 CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment and Degrees.Murray, Gregg R. 7 Key Questions to Ask During Your Grad School Interview. 18 Dec. 2014.Petersons blog staff. Graduate Admission: Tips for a Great Interview. 29 Nov. 2017.Struefert, Billie. How to Ace Your Grad School Interview. 20 Feb. 2015.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Policies and practice in health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Policies and practice in health - Essay Example Diabetes could cause several harmful and long term impacts upon the human health due to which the importance of combating this problem with the help of adequate health policy has been widely realized. The healthcare professionals and healthcare policy makers widely agree that it is very imperative to formulate and implement sound policies and health plan to address the issues and concerns associated with the human health and diabetes effects (Ekoke et al, 2001, p98). In United Kingdom the prevalence of diabetes has considerable increased over the last few decades and every passing year is adding thousands of people in the list of diabetic patients in the country. The situation is becoming worst with each passing day because the problems of obesity and overweighting have also become problem due to which the type2 diabetes is also becoming very common among the people. Since the ratio of diabetes has been continuously increasing with alarming rate, the situation demands the wakeup call by the health campaigners so that this ratio could be reduced and the main factors behind the increase in diabetes cases could be worked out (Diabetes UK, 2001, p83). ... sing numbers of diabetic patients in the country has built pressure upon NHS because it has the responsibility of formulating policies to prevent the accordance of such diseases with such a high rate. While responding to this critical need NHS has worked on several strategic healthcare plans to assure the safety of the citizens from diabetes and other health problems that could evolve from diabetes (Hoffman R et al, 2002, p1748). NHS has demonstrated that the main objective of its health plan related with diabetes is based upon the objective of reducing the number of diabetes patient and improving the care for the people suffering from this disease. NHS diabetes policy aims to develop partnership with the healthcare staff so that these people could also be motivated and properly trained to deal with the people having diabetes (Department of Health, 2010, p23). The National Health Service plan for diabetes instructs the healthcare staff to offer structures and proactive care to the pe ople so that they could be able to manage their own health conditions at their own by taking adequate care of their disease through proper awareness and information about diabetes. NHS has also set up several local diabetes networks to robust the mechanism and policies implemented at the national level so that the benefits of the policies could be spread at local level as well. In this regard, NHS has worked for joint working relations between the Local Health Boards and the Local Diabetes Service Advisory Groups. The place register and clinical management system are also assured within the healthcare centres to allow systematic management and monitoring of the healthcare policies and their outcomes (Department of Health, 2010, p23). There have been several important plans and policies

Friday, November 1, 2019

Critically analyse the concept of fair and equitable treatment in Essay

Critically analyse the concept of fair and equitable treatment in investment treaties, taking into account recent investment - Essay Example A nice starting point for a good discussion is that the term or phrase â€Å"fair and equitable treatment† is the minimum standard and is included in most international investment agreements (IIAs). There are slight variations to this legal standard, such as the phrase â€Å"equitable and reasonable treatment† but both of the phrases are almost always made in reference to international laws. Admittedly, even this short phrase is subject to different interpretations depending on the circumstances and one's viewpoint. What is lacking in most of treaties is the legal concept of erga omnes like in Portugal v Australia to attain the goal of FET.2 It is the main purpose of this paper to explore further how this relatively simple legal phrase is used today to implement investment treaties. What is quite troubling to see is the prevalent use of the concept of special laws to interpret treaties in favour of one party only – the investors.3 Discussion Fair and equitable tr eatment is becoming more important these days. ... The only issue supposedly before any trade arbitral tribunal is to decide whether in all circumstances the conduct at issue is indeed fair and equitable.4 Definition: â€Å"Fair and equitable† treatment, narrowly speaking, refers to investments.5 It is commonly used in international treaty law and â€Å"protects investors' legitimate and reasonable expectations;6 it also protects against an arbitrary or capricious treatment, bad faith, coercion and harassments.† Investors negotiating with countries are very often understandably worried that their investments might be seized as part of nationalisation schemes, or that a change of regimes might cause loans to be defaulted upon or that corruption might force them to engage in more frequent bribery as seen across the developing world. The main consideration is the safety of investments by making sure agreements offer the contracting parties increased security and protection.7 Investors prefer safety before any profits are c onsidered. The investor's legitimate security expectations are the dominant elements of this treaty standard.8 Some experts believe FET guarantees a treatment beyond the minimum standards required under international laws. But this paper will analyse fair and equitable treatment (FET) a little bit broadly. It is fair enough for investors to receive fair and equitable treatment but what about the host governments, citizen stakeholders, NGOs, labour and the poor? This paper will thus look at fair and equitable treatment in that broader fashion. By merely looking at â€Å"fair and equitable treatment† rulings, it could give a false impression that treaties were fairly implemented and negotiated when they are in fact deeply divisive, controversial,

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The Krebs Cycle And Its relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Essay

The Krebs Cycle And Its relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism & Acid base balance - Essay Example This proves that the Krebs cycle occurs in the oxidation of fats. It was later found by Krebs that the citric acid cycles is not limited to animal cells but it takes place is almost all aerobic cells. In a cell, the Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria or power plant and generated energy need by the organism to function (The Krebs Cycle. Cell Structure and Function). Krebs metabolic pathway in the cells is responsible for the oxidation of the basic food components that constitute carbohydrates, protein and fat to give out energy. Mitochondria are present in the cells of the human body. The fundamental function of these minute organelles (that range from 500 to 2000 mitochondria in a cell) is to convert energy present in the nutrient molecules and store this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is the universal energy producing molecules utilised by enzymes to conduct a number of cellular functions. Human being cannot live even for a second without the continuous supply of ATP. Energy conversion requires oxygen and this is supplied by the circulatory and respiratory systems which carry the oxygen to the tissue for further use by mitochondria to remove carbon dioxide. This process is called cellular respiration. During the Krebs cycle, acetyl coenzyme A is metabolised into citric acid which undergoes a complex series of biologic al oxidation to produce free hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ion then move to a biochemical phase called oxidative phosphorylation which is a highly competitive aerobic energy producer. Oxidative phosphorylation produces 36 molecules of ATP. There are different phases at which metabolites move into the Krebs cycle. Components of carbohydrates, fat and protein are broken down to molecule coenzyme A before moving into the Krebs cycle. Glucose the basic fuel in the body is initially metabolized into pyruvic acid and later to acetyle

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Personal Leadership Development Plan Education Essay

Personal Leadership Development Plan Education Essay The scientific analysis of leadership began by focusing on leaders themselves. The trait theory of leadership, as it is often called, was originally grounded in the assumption that some people are simply natural leaders by virtue of the fact that they have been endowed with certain characteristics not possessed by others. Since traits appeared to have little analytical or predictive value, leadership researches shifted their emphasis in the late 1940s and early 1950s from leader traits to leader behaviors as the basic unit of analysis. The investigation of leader traits has been more productive because researchers have constructed more appropriate theories, used better measures of traits, included more relevant traits, and used longitudinal data. Consequently a variety of personal attributes, such as energy level and emotional maturity have now been linked to effective leadership (e.g. Bass, 1990). Further, traits associated with socialized or learned motivational patterns, such as t he need for power and the need for achievement, have been empirically connected with effective managers. In addition, different types of skills, that is, interpersonal skills, technical skills, and cognitive skills appear to be relevant to managerial success. The cumulative traits in an individual make him/her decide the best for his future and lead for him the path of glory. The same goes for me as well as there lies some unrigged traits in me that drives me towards the development of a specific leadership plan for me, according to my inherited features. The trait of making people come to a common conclusion inherits in me, which gives me an insight as to being a strong leader. Though this trait is not dominant in me yet, but with the growth of my mind and body, I would want to work on this trait of mine to utilize the positives. Also, the art of misleading people at times, in order to get the work out, is not visibly seen in me. Therefore, the specific nuances that are required to become a complete leader is missing in my overall personality. The positives would be taken by me in all its valid respects, and the negatives would be scrolled out viciously. LEADERSHIP STYLES The path-goal model identified four distinct types of leader behaviors: 1. Supportive leadership Leaders with this style show concern for the well being and personal needs of subordinates. 2. Directive leadership Leaders with this style provide specific guidance for subordinates by setting standards of performance, scheduling and coordinating work efforts, and asking subordinates to follow rules and regulations. 3. Achievement-oriented leadership This style of leadership involves setting challenging goals, seeking improvements in performance, emphasizing excellence in performance, and showing confidence that subordinates will achieve high levels of performance. 4. Participative leadership Leaders with this style solicit suggestions and advice from subordinates and take this information into account when making decisions. The most prominent leadership style in me is of Participative. This is because the instinct of participation has always been dominant in me, which has further encouraged me to take various decisions. The art of listening to others patiently and finalizing my own opinions yet has been firmly rooted within me. Contrary to this, stands the authoritative style of leadership. This style lies on the harsher side of an individual, and therefore, an individual like me is refrained from such a style. Moreover, if there lies any possibility of me getting prone to this leadership style, I shall make sure that I utilize it to the best of my ability, without making it a bane for anyone. LEADERSHIP SKILLS Developing leadership skills is a continuous process which needs to be sharpened throughout a persons career. In order to develop my leadership skills, I will first need to take stock of my existing leadership skills, strengths and weaknesses. While doing this, what would be required of me is the consideration of the difference between leadership and management. Though the leadership skills incorporate the elements of charisma, dependability, flexibility, judgment, integrity, courage, individual consideration etc, I would like to inculcate some of the dominant skills while framing my personality plan. These skills would include the element of intellectual stimulation, charisma and individual consideration. Charisma to be quoted in a single sentence, can be defined as ones ability to entrust respect, trust and faith, which according to me, is the most required. Another pertinent leadership skill that I would like to imbibe is intellectual stimulation. It is the ability to make others working in the organization make use of facts and logic so as to extract new ways of solving problems. These elements shall make my plan of personality a worth while option. TEAM BUILDING Another trait of leadership is team building, which can prove to be a success or a failure of a leader. Team building is a catch all term for a whole list of techniques aimed at improving the internal functioning of work groups (Kreitner et al., 2002). Whether conducted by company trainers or outside consultants, team building workshops strive for greater cooperation, better communication, and less dysfunctional conflict. Experiential learning techniques such as interpersonal trust exercises, conflict-handling role play sessions, and interactive games are common. Rote memorization and lectures/discussions are discouraged by team-building experts who prefer this sort of active versus passive learning. Greater emphasis is placed on how work groups get the job done than on the job itself. Team building generally is carried out in the name of organization development (OD). The extensive use of team building appears to be justified. The element of team building is something which I personally appreciate in any individual and therefore, talking about me, the imbibing of this very power would be addressed by me further. In order to be strong leaders and in order to develop a personal leadership plan, my emphasis would be on building and leading groups. This way a sense of team would be visible in my skills, in turn making me a perfect leader. COMMUNICATION The issue of communication is vital for the successful functioning of any organization. All organizations normally establish formal mechanisms and processes of vertical and lateral lines or channels of communication to provide the means by which information, facts, ideas, proposals, emotions, feelings, opinions and problems can be exchanged. According to Kelly, the term Communication may be defined as the field of knowledge which deals with the systematic application of symbols to acquire common information regarding an object or event. Communication and information feed the quality of all human relations in organizations. Good communications underlie good relations and exchange the general quality of working life, motivation and morale. Bad and inadequate communications lead to frustration, and enhance feelings of alienation and lack of identity and unity. Choosing the right kind of communication is crucial in forming a leadership plan and it depends a lot on the culture of a region. My communication style depends partly on whether the addressees make a high or low contribution in the communication process. My communication style is more participative as I belong to a culture in which there is more of a democratic style of functioning. The style of communication also depends on whether a culture is individualistic or collective. Since there are some traits of collective culture, therefore, my emphasis is more on the group achievement, rather than on the individual achievement. The leadership skills primarily incorporate the element of communication, which in turn exhibit the vital ingredients that are necessary to be referred while communicating with an individual. I would certainly like to acquire some of the pertinent communication skills that would make me a jack in the field of leadership. These skills would incorporate the tinge of activeness and vigor to impress the one standing on the other side. Another important communication skill that I would like to imbibe is the ability to convince the other. This would make several doors open for me while planning my steps in the development of the leadership plan. II. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES My utmost and peripheral strength is my ability to work hard. Hard-work and perseverance are considered the most vital elements for gaining an upper hand on the other individual. While developing the leadership development plan, the foremost thing that I shall adhere to is gathering my strengths together and making the best possible use of it in my career. My ability to lead shall make me more eligible for succumbing to the development of my leadership development plan. The only way to lead in life is therefore, to accumulate all the hidden strengths and wave off all the imbibed weaknesses, which spoils the entire plan in a go. Being a bit of short tempered, I tend to lose my patience at times. This can prove to be a very negative trait of mine while developing my leadership plan. Therefore, in order to become a successful leader, I would have to eradicate this flaw or weakness of mine and work on the further inevitability of the same. This shall make the whole process of developing a plan reach the set targets. Patience is said to be the key of success, therefore, this trait would be duly inculcated by me in its set limits. III. PERSONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The earliest content theory of scientific management was pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor, Frank Gilbreth and Henry L. Gantt. The scientific management theory of motivation considered money to be the only incentive. Subsequent theories began to consider factors such as working conditions and work security to be incentives. Still later, the possibility of satisfying higher level needs or motives also came to be considered as incentives. Examples of such needs are: the needs for esteem and self- actualization, identified by Maslow; responsibility, recognition, achievement and advancement as proposed by Herzberg; and growth and personal development as identified by Alderfer. The most popular extension and refinement of Maslows theory of needs is the one proposed by Alderfer (1972). While Maslows model was not developed specifically for work organizations, Alderfers theory attempted to establish a conceptualization of human needs that are relevant to organizational settings. In extending Maslows theory Alderfer argued that the need categories could be grouped into three more general classes: Existence, Relatedness and Growth. Under the content theories of motivation, Maslows hierarchy of needs goes best with my actual self. The five step needs are essential for any individual to survive. In order to form a leadership development plan, the scope of motivation must be wide and diverse. To begin with, the physiological and safety needs are the foundation that makes me stand stiff towards the commencement of leadership plan. Furthermore, the love, esteem and self actualization needs stand erect in strengthening my base and applying such a theory in my practical life to grow higher. Also, Alderfers ERG theory of motivation plays a great role in growing higher and leading high. This will help in developing a synchronized plan of leadership for me. PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION There are three process theories of motivation namely Equity Theory, Vrooms Expectancy Theory and The Porter-Lawler Model. First proposed by Stacey Adams, the equity theory is completely based on the basic ground that people aspire to get treated fairly. The theory propounds that equity is nothing better than a belief that states that we are being treated equally as compared to the others. It also defines that inequity is just a belief that we are being treated unfairly in comparison to others. Adams describes the equity comparison process in terms of input/outcome ratios. Inputs are an individuals contributions to the organization, such as education, experience, effort and loyalty. Outcomes are what he or she receives in return, such as pay, recognition, social relationships and intrinsic rewards. Speaking about the Vrooms Expectancy Theory, Vroom (1964) presented the first systematic formulation of expectancy theory developed specifically for work situations. According to Vroom (1964) employees rationally evaluate various work behaviors. Put another way, employees will decide to apply effort to those tasks that they find attractive and that they believe they can perform. The attractiveness of a particular task depends upon the extent to which the employee believes that its accomplishment will lead to valued outcomes. Porter and Lawler extended the highly known Vrooms (1964) expectancy model. They agreed with Vroom that employee effort is jointly determined by the valence that employees place on certain outcomes and the degree to which people and their efforts will lead to the attainment of these rewards. However, Porter and Lawler emphasize that effort may not necessarily result in performance. Furthermore, they contend that the relationship between valencies and expectancies, on the one hand, and effort or motivation, on the other, is more complicated than Vrooms model suggests. When it comes on which process theory suits me, I think the Porter- Lawler method suits me the best. It webs my efforts, performance, rewards and satisfaction in a systematic queue that enhances my work motivation and makes me a more worthwhile individual. It is generally said that a happy worker is a productive worker and I personally desire to inherit the same within me. The how of motivation is explained under the process theory of motivation. The deep down cognitive antecedents are subdued in my personality, making my ladder of career taller and taller. My desire to perform in every field and extract wonderful results boosts me to apply certain elements of process theories of motivation in my very self. 5 FACTOR PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE The five factors that I espouse to inhibit within me in its complete respect are the elements of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness. The quality of extraversion is deep seated in my personality but as and when I am progressing towards the overall grooming, I am quite inquisitive to form such a leadership development plan that brings out my inner talent and positive qualities. I would certainly go by the factors of agreeableness and conscientiousness too. This would in turn strengthen my plan in totality. LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND CONCEPTS There are many different leadership theories that have been developed. The first one is Leader Traits. The scientific analysis of leadership began by focusing on leaders themselves. The trait theory of leadership, as it is often called, was originally grounded in the assumption that some people are simply natural leaders by virtue of the fact that they have been endowed with certain characteristics not possessed by others. Since traits appeared to have little analytical or predictive value, leadership researches shifted their emphasis in the late 1940s and early 1950s from leader traits to leader behaviors as the basic unit of analysis. The investigation of leader traits has been more productive because researchers have constructed more appropriate theories, used better measures of traits, included more relevant traits, and used longitudinal data. Consequently a variety of personal attributes, such as energy level and emotional maturity have now been linked to effective leadership (e .g. Bass, 1990). Further, traits associated with socialized or learned motivational patterns, such as the need for power and the need for achievement, have been empirically connected with effective managers. In addition, different types of skills, that is, interpersonal skills, technical skills, and cognitive skills appear to be relevant to managerial success. The apparent failure of trait approaches to the study of leadership, by the end of the 1940s, led researchers to adopt a new focus for their work during the 1950s. Instead of personal attributes, investigators began to concentrate on leader behaviors as explanatory variables. This approach compares the behaviors of effective leaders with those of ineffective ones. Two major research projects investigating leader behaviors were initiated at about the same time. One was a research effort conducted at Ohio State University. The other was a program undertaken at the University of Michigan by Likert and his colleagues. Leadership theories though are self explanatory and inviting to plan a better development plan of leadership, yet my development plan focuses on the trait theory of leadership. This gives an insight to the different traits that are present in every individual differently, irrespective of its form and format. The leadership traits that I found to be the most tempting are leadership motivation, which implies having a desire to lead but not being hungry for power at the same time. The drive, honesty and integrity are other related traits in the trait theory of leadership, but out of all these traits, the best suited for me is the drive and cognitive ability. It insinuates me to lead in a better way, no matter how hard a circumstance I am being put in. Drive is a force that incorporates energy, initiative, achievement, ambition and tenacity and I feel all these traits are present in me, somewhere or the other, but are not yet prominent. But I shall nourish these traits within me, without any hustle and bustle. IV. CONCLUSION Hence my leadership development plan would be such that it makes me an overall groomed individual, inhibiting the leading traits of empathy, patient listener, leadership motivation, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Also, since I inherit features like extraversion, cognitive antecedents and strong determination, I would aspire to go smooth on the path of success, by droving along the aforementioned inhabitants. Group achievement is another aspect that I would be dealing with in order to form a strong place for myself in the dynamic world of leadership. My plan of leadership development would therefore be inclusive of all the positive traits and skills quoted by me above and would exclude most of the unwanted features.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Millennial Themes in The Prelude and Mont Blanc Essay -- Wordsworth P

Millennial Themes in The Prelude and Mont Blanc On reading Book VI of Wordsworth's thirteen-part version of The Prelude, I was particularly struck by the passage in which, following his crossing of the Alps, the poet describes "the sick sight / And giddy prospect of the raging stream" (VI. 564-565) of the Arve Ravine as both an apocalyptic foreboding and an expression of millennial unity in his theory of the One Mind: The unfettered clouds and region of the heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and the light, Were all like workings of one mind, the features Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree, Characters of the great Apocalypse, The types and symbols of eternity, Of first, and last, and midst, and without end. (VI. 566-572) The unity of God, man, and nature is of course a common theme in Wordsworth's poetry, having been given equally memorable treatments in Tintern Abbey and elsewhere, but it was the seemingly paradoxical sentiment of this passage from The Prelude that made such a strong impression on me. As John Beer points out in his article "Romantic Apocalypses," "Although traditionally the apocalypse and the millennium have gone together, recently, the first, with its sense of doom, has been more prominent" (109). To a reader who has lived through the passing of both a new century and a new millennium, the phrase "Characters of the great Apocalypse" tends to evoke feelings of eschatological anxiety, and to suggest the fragility and transience of the landscape Wordsworth is attempting to describe. It is easy to forget that Wordsworth used the term in its original sense of "simply 'revelation,' the name given to the English version in the New Testament" (Beer 109); and that in its evocations o... ... used the essential paradox of apocalypse and millennium not to prophesy the destruction of the existing world, but to make their readers aware of the greater harmony of the universe, both within and outside the boundaries of time. Works Cited Beer, John. "Romantic Apocalypses." Wordsworth Circle 32.2 (2001): 109-116. Shelley, Percy Bysshe. "Mont Blanc: Lines Written in the Vale of Chamounix." 1816. Romanticism: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Ed. Duncan Wu. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. 845-849. Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Excerpt from "Journal-Letter from Percy Bysshe Shelley to Thomas Love Peacock, 22 July to 2 August 1876." Romanticism: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Ed. Duncan Wu. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. 844. Wordsworth, William. Excerpt from The Thirteen-Book Prelude, Book VI. 1806. Romanticism: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Ed. Duncan Wu. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. 389-392.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Philippine Party-List System: A Failure or a Success? Essay

The country’s population is about 90 million; about 70 percent of which is in poverty. It is not farfetched to say that majority of the country’s population is underserved and marginalized ― our farmers, fisher folks, the youth and the women among others ―and are in need of government’s attention. In a developing country like the Philippines, decision-making or policy-making must gear towards development of these underserved sectors of the Philippine society. The population elects its legislators ― congressional and party-list representatives, senators and the rest of the elective members of the bureaucracy. But what assurance do the Filipino people get that the underserved are represented in the policy-making body of the country? It is the party-list system. As defined by Republic Act No. 7941 also known as the Philippine Party-list Act, â€Å"the party-list system is a mechanism of proportional representation in the election of representat ives to the House of Representatives from national, regional and sectoral parties or organizations or coalitions thereof registered with the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).† The rationale behind the emergence of the Philippine party-list system in the Philippine party politics is to provide representation to the marginalized and underrepresented sectors of the society ― a ‘democratizing agent’ to the elite-oriented Congress. Nonetheless, it attempts to challenge the status quo and truly serve the underserved masses (Rivera, 2007). The emergence of the party-list system is not an event which transpired â€Å"out of the blue† rather an attempt to redress an insufficiently undemocratic growing elite party politics in the country. Tracing history backwards, the domination of the elite-oriented party politics can clearly be seen since its beginning up to its continuing ascendancy in the Philippine politics today. When the American rule in the Philippines instigated, they were faced with Filipino armed resistance. To resist such â€Å"insurgencies† and to install its complete control over the Philippines, the Americans painsta kingly deceived the Filipinos thru the Filipinization it proposed ― a venue for Filipino participation in the realm of governance and politics. To achieve such purpose, they â€Å"recruited† the elites to join the Filipinization (Gealogo, 2007). Why the elites? For one, they have their own interest to protect. They have much and more to lose than to gain if they won’t yield and collaborate with the colonizers. And they do not trust their fellow Filipinos for they themselves have branded their fellowmen as ‘thieves’. Simply put, they try to maintain political power. And political power resides in property: in their wealth. It is interesting to note, they have collaborated not with the Americans only but with all the other colonizers who came to our land and they successfully maintained a stronghold in the political arena ― in the arena of influence and the influential ― and so begins the reign of the elites. Dante Simbulan (2005) sites that â€Å"the political parties or factions that developed [today] had one common beginning: the principalia group which . . . was composed of the native ruling elites under the Spaniards [emphasis added].† The elites of today are in fact the elites of the colonial Phi lippines. Surprisingly, the entire Philippine party system in today’s time is dominated only by less than a hundred to a hundred wealthy families, and they exist as political clans and dynasties (Simbulan, R., 2007). Does one expect an elite-oriented Congress to legislate against its own interests and genuinely serve the greater masses ― the marginalized and the underrepresented? Prior to the party-list system, minority parties that represent the interest of the same sectors that the party-lists represent today have existed. They tried to forward the interest of the underserved and the marginalized, but eventually, â€Å"no working class (or counter elite) political group or party was able to prosper [emphasis added] (Simbulan, D., 2005).† Former minority parties did not thrive. Now that the Philippine Party-list Act provides the establishment of the party-list system, the question is: Will it, too, vanish like the minority parties which used to assume the same role it does today? This paper seeks to assess the efficacy of the party-list system while pointing out loopholes and lapses in the system. As Section 2 of Republic Act No 7941 or the â€Å"Party-list System Act† states, the Party-list System has three basic elements: (1) to include the â€Å"marginalized† and â€Å"underrepresented† sectors of the country in the legislative processes of the House of Representatives ― democratize the Congress; (2) to pluralize the party system by encouraging multi-parties and (3) to simplify the electoral system. Let us examine the first element of the party-list system by finding out whether it complies with its most basic purpose or not ― that is to democratize the Congress. Based on RA 7941 and the 1987 Constitution, the party-list (originally) has the following basic features: 1. Twenty percent allocation. The party-list representatives constitute 20% of the total number of representatives including those under the party-list. 2. Two percent threshold. A party or organization must obtain at least two percent of the total votes obtained by the party-list system in order to get one seat. 3. Three-seat limit. Section 11 of RA 7941 specifies that a qualified party would be entitled to a maximum of three seats. 4. Proportional representation. The additional seats that the party is entitled to are computed in proportion to its total number of votes. Over the years, there have been debates on these basic features of the party-list system― the structure per se is said to be a â€Å"counter-productive† structure and is in contrast to the very purpose of the party-list system. To show this, let us take a look at the 14 years of the party-list system. The first ever party-list election in 1998 was accepted with enthusiasm. A total of 123 parties participated in the election. The first party-list election was not free of controversies. Right after the election, a certain party-list (PAG-ASA) filed a petition wanting the filling up of the complete 20 percent membership of the party-list to the House of Representatives― they argued it is mandatory. This petition gathered support from nine other organizations which also filed. Eventually, the COMELEC declared all the other 38 organizations in addition to the already declared 14 winners. In declaring the other 38 organizations the COMELEC clearly disregarded the 2 percent threshold and it reasoned out that their decision was based on the following justifications: (1) ‘the marginalized and the underrepresented sectors must be represented in the House of Representatives, (2) the party-list system must represent the broadest sectors of the society and; (3) it would encourage multi-party system.’ However, 12 of the parties which were initially declared by the COMELEC objected to the proclamation of the other 38 organizations arguing that only them (the 14 initially declared winners) are entitled to the seat in the lower house because the other 38 organizations failed to attain the 2 percent vote threshold. Eventually, the dispute was resolved in the Supreme Court. In an en banc session of the Supreme Court in October 1998 it ruled that the 20 percent seat allocation as prescribed by Section 5 (2) of the Constitution is not mandatory. Furthermore, it ruled that the 2 percent threshold is constitutional thus required to obtain a seat in the House of Representatives. So the COMELEC had to recall the proclamation of the other 38 organizations. Given the basic features of the party-list system, one important question needs to be answered: â€Å"How does the party-list system enhance the chances of marginalized or underrepresented parties of winning seats in the House of Representatives?† The COMELEC says that with the three- seat cap for the party-lists, major political parties or the bigger parties which usually dominates the elections will not have the chance to â€Å"corner all the seats† in the House of Representatives and â€Å"crowd out† minority parties. This, th ey argue, will encourage the party-lists to win seat in the House of Representatives. Granted this to be true and the desired or expected consequence to be existent, the party-list is indeed a potential counter-foil to the elite-dominated Congress. However, given this features, particularly the three-seat cap, Felix Muga (2007c) argues―in contrast with what the COMELEC declares―that this features of the party-list system particularly the three-seat cap is a â€Å"counter-productive† structure for â€Å"it promotes the break-up of a strong party into smaller ones and discourages parties to form bigger coalitions† (Para. 4). To illustrate this, let us consider the events after the 2001 Party-list Elections. After the Supreme Court disqualified some parties during the 2001 Elections, Bayan Muna’s percentage share of total party-list votes reached 26.82 percent (Party-List Canvass Report Number 26 as September 7, 2001). Sadly, they were just given three seats. Consequently, in the 2004 party-list election, Bayan Muna broke up into smalle r parties and obtained 6 seats in the House of Representatives. Note that not only Bayan Muna resorted to this break up; there are also several of other party-lists like the Sanlakas. Thus, Muga further claims that â€Å"it [3-seat cap] does not pave the way for smaller parties to win seats in the House of Representatives. Together with the 2% informal threshold in the simplified Comelec Formula or with the first party-rule of the Panganiban Formula, it cannot fill up the available number of party-list seats and causes the Formula used to contradict the principle of proportional representation [emphasis added].† The party-list as defined is a ‘mechanism for proportional representation’ (RA 7941). Thus, for instance, if a party gets 50 percent of the total party-list votes, it shall get the 50 percent of the total number of seats allocated for the party-lists (principle of proportionality). RA 7941 requires a vote threshold. The two (2) percent vote threshold means that the party which obtained at least 2 percent of the party-list votes will be allotted the seat. Mathematically, this can be represented by total number of votes of all parties divided by the total number of available seats (Hare Quota). In the 2007 Party-list election, the total number of party-list votes reached 8,416,421; the 20 percent seat allocation for that particular Party-List Election translated to 55 seats. Therefore, following the above-mentioned formula, we arrive at â€Å"8,416,421 divided by 55 seats, equals 153,025† (Hare Quota). Following the principle of proportionality, we now compute the ideal seat for BUHAY party-list, the top-notch party-list group in the 2007 Party-List Election. BUHAY attained a total number of votes of 1,169,234; we divide it with the Hare Quota for the 2007 Party-list Election computed earlier which is 153,025 (1,169,234/153,025). Thus, the ideal seat for BUHAY is 7.64. However, the ideal seat is not the actual seat given to the winning party-list groups. Muga (2005) came up with the idea of â€Å"seat allocation error† to illustrate the difference between the ideal seat and the actual seat given (ideal seat – actual seat given). BUHAY party-list’s ideal seat is 7.64, but it was granted with only 3 seats. Thus, the â€Å"seat allocation error† is 4.64 seats. They were deprived of 4 more seats in the Congress and were only given 3. Muga also provided a formula in computing the disenfranchised votes which can be expressed as: Degree of Negation X Hare Quota = Number of votes disenfranchised To a certain extent, the basic features ― the three-seat cap, the 2 percent vote threshold and the First Party Rule ― of the party-list system’s structure caused the negation of proportional representation. This structure is indeed â€Å"counter-productive† on the part of the party-lists and most of all, the entire marginalized sector they represent. The party-list system seeks to democratize the Congress. Ironically, the structure itself does not provide any clear means for a genuine â€Å"democratization† of the Congress. Given this restrictions, ‘no party can really grow in the Congress.’ In the latter part of this paper, performance of the party-lists (in terms of legislation) shall be assessed and we will found out if the current party-list structure has something to do with the party-lists’ performance. Also, major concerns of the party-list system are issues on accreditation, membership and legislation. The accreditation p rocess employed by the Commission on Elections is very loose ― there is lack of prohibition against party-lists with links to the government (irrespective whether direct or indirect), lack of strict imposition of prohibition on party-lists receiving foreign support, lack of strictness in following the rules set by the law on who shall become the party-list’s nominee among others. To illustrate this, let us consider the party-list Aksyon Sambayanan or AKSA. It is very clear in the Supreme Court ruling that a party-list shall be disqualified if â€Å"It is receiving foreign support from any foreign government, foreign political party, foundation, organization, whether directly or through any of its officers or members, or indirectly through third parties for partisan election purposes† (Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001, En Banc). Despite that, after known to be supported by Socialist International, AKSA still was accredited, allowed to join the election and was given seat in the House of Representatives (Manalansan, 2007). It may be safe to say that the Supreme Court ruling has not been proven insurmountable because such lapses occur. Also is the nominee Catalina Bagasina ― a provincial board member and a business woman ― of the Pilipino Association for Country or Urban Poor Youth Advancement Wel fare (Pacyaw). The Ang Galing Pinoy party-list is a group representing the security guards. Its representative to the Congress is the former first son―the son of the former President now Pampanga Representative Gloria Arroyo― Rep. Juan Miguel â€Å"Mikey† Arroyo. What is troubling about this is that Rep. Arroyo is not and has never been a security guard. In short, he doesn’t belong to the sector he represents. Logically, how can he truly understand the plight of the security guards if he himself is not one of them? The Supreme Court ruling states that â€Å"not only the candidate party or organization must represent marginalized and underrepresented sectors, so also must its nominees. The nominees must be Filipino citizen ‘who belong to marginalized and underrepresented sectors, organizations and parties [he/she represents]’† (Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001, En Banc, para. 8). Surprisingly, Ang Galing Pin oy which is in clear defiance to this rule is still in position in Congress. Still surprisingly, there are other party-lists in defiance to this. 1-UTAK party-list ― a group representing PUV drivers, operators and commuters ― had the late former Energy Secretary Angelo Reyes as its representative. It is interesting to note that former Sec. Reyes is a stalwart defender of the oil deregulation law, which this group he tried to represent, strongly opposes. Another point the Supreme Court ruling raised was that â€Å"the political party, sector, organization or coalition must represent the marginalized and underrepresented groups identified in Section 5 or R.A. 7941† (Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001, En Banc). However, APEC or the Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives is not a marginalized group yet it is granted the chance to join the election and win seats. Manalansan (2007) further points out other party-lists which are not considered marginalized. They are BUHAY, Veterans Federation of the Philippines and Cooperative-National Confederation of Cooperat ives (Coop-NATCCO) among others. Moreover, the Supreme Court ruled that â€Å"the party or organization must not be an adjunct of, or a project organized or entry funded or assisted by, the government. . . . The participation of the government or its official in the affairs of a party-list candidate is not only illegal and unfair to other parties, but also deleterious to the objective of the law† (Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001, En Banc). However, the Veterans Federation of the Philippines (VFP) is a government-funded group. It is in fact a creation of R.A. 2640 (Manalansan, 2007). Clearly, there are lots of loopholes in the current party-list system ― not only the structure which makes it ineffective but also the very process of filtrating or accrediting the party-lists-to-be and the nominees. In its 14 years of existence, how well did the party-lists performed in the Philippine legislature? In the 11th Congress, the party-list representatives filed a total of 3, 698 bills and resolutions. Only 20 bills reached Second Reading. In the 12th and 13th Congress, party-lists representatives filed a total of 5, 706 bills and resolutio ns, but majority of which are still pending (Manalansan, 2007). In the 14th Congress, there were 19 bills which reached the Third Reading but disappointingly, none became a law. One may remember the approval of the 125 pesos daily minimum wage increase in the 13th Congress. It was filed by Bayan Muna Rep. Crispin Beltran (12th Congress) and refilled by him again in the 13th Congress (this time as Anakpawis representative). It was approved by the House of Representatives and the Senate. However, it was later on recalled. At the brighter side, laws on Abolition of the Death Penalty, Protection to Children in Conflict with the Law, Anti-Trafficking in Persons, Anti-Violence against Women and Overseas Absentee Voting have been passed with party-list representatives as forwarders and/or consultants. The progressive party-list representatives are diligent enough to file and re-file bills and resolutions that would serve the greater mass. These are bills to amend the Labor Code, to repeal the Automatic Appropriations law, Mining Act, National Government Center Land Utilization Act and Oil Deregulation Act among others. On the contrary, a number of bills have been passed within a short period of deliberations only. These bills are alleged as â€Å"Malacaňang-certified† legislations. Examples of this are the Expanded Value Added Tax, Lateral Attrition Law and the infamous Anti-terrorism bill or the Human Security Act of 2007. Since the beginning of the party-list system there were assumptions that the party-list, originating from elite politics, shall only prolong elite politics in the country (Simbulan, 2007). Some believe that this is just a make-believe measure to make it appear that the Philippine society is well-represented in the legislature. At this point, we will try to assess whether this assumption is true or not. It is a fact that the Philippine congress is a congress of the elite or the wealthy oligarchs of the nation. As a matter of fact, in a study conducted by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), it found out that ‘60 to 100 wealthy families (political clans) â€Å"dominate† and â€Å"determine† the entire Philippine legislature or politics’ (Simbulan, 2007). The PCIJ studied political clans from 2001 to 2004 and found out that political parties in the country are really â€Å"clan alliances†. In a Congress like this ―dominated by traditional parties and wealthy political clans, where number matters ― what can the very few party-list representatives do to forward the interest of the masses when it conflicts with the elites? Proponents of the party-list system admit that the party-lists have been absorbed by the traditional parties in the Congress. In news article from GMA News TV on April 6, 2010, former Marikina Rep. Romeo Candazo ― one of the main authors of the RA 7941 ― said that ‘majority of the party-list representatives have been co-opted by traditional politics. As such, it is very difficult for this minority party-list to resist the domination of these ruling elites. These political clans coalesce with other clans or political parties to uphold and protect the status quo and to maintain a stronghold on the legislature. This sufficiently explains why the party-lists get co-opted by these traditional parties. Clearly, the party-list is to the disadvantage as compared to the traditional parties in the Congress. First, the party-list lacks the number or a stronghold in the Congress due to the seat allocation restrictions of the Party-List System Act. Also, the party-list lacks the machinery during elections. The very low voters’ turnout on party-list election testifies to the ignorance of the people on this system. This may be attributed to the lack of machinery of the party-lists system. The party-lists lack the financial prowess to air political ads on televisions and other media of information. In a Pulse Asia Survey (March 27 to April 4, 2004), television is the leading primary source of election-related information (71%), followed by radio at 20 percent and newspapers by 4 percent (Arao, 2007). As such, how would the people know about the party-list if these media of information is not maximized by the party-list? However, we cannot deny the fact that the party-list has two faces: the rich and the poor. Some party-list representatives are found at the bottom 10 percent poorest Representatives, but there are party-list representatives who are millionaires. In the 12th Congress, APEC representatives were all multi-millionaires. There are many other millionaire party-list representatives like Alagad’s Rodante Macoleto, AVE’s Eulogio Magsaysay, and Coop-NATCCO’s Guillermo Cua among others. Note that in the 13th Congress, the richest party-list representative was VFP’s Gidaya with a net worth of 34.66 million pesos and the poorest was Anakpawis’ Rep. Rafael Mariano with a net worth of 18,000 pesos (Manalansan, 2007). It is not farfetched that one day the party-list is no longer of difference with the traditional parties in the Congress. What future awaits the Party-List System? Will it too vanish or survive the test of traditional politics? In conclusion, this paper does not undermine the potential of the party-list system for it has forwarded a significant number of bills and resolutions since 1998 up to this present Congress. It is a clear sign that the party-lists system, somehow, is working in the Philippines. They have provided the underserved and the marginalized a voice in the congress. They tried to strike a balance in an elite Congress. The party-list per se is a great chance for the masses to be represented. But it is undeniable that the party-li st system is failing. It might just be a matter of less than a decade that the â€Å"narrow alley constitutionally reserved for the representation of marginal sectors in Congress† be permanently closed by traditional politics (Tuazon, 2007). It is quite not hard to conclude that the Philippine party-list system is more of a failure than a success. First and for most, its goal to democratize the Philippine Congress is at the onset defeated for the structure itself limits the growth of this party-list groups in the Congress and even encouraged break ups among the party-lists. Secondly, the issue of accreditation weakens the chance of the party-list system to genuinely fulfill its promising purpose ― to serve the marginalized and the underrepresented sectors of the society. Moreover, the party-lists are co-opted by traditional politics. The party-list legislation has not resulted to any concrete law that would directly benefit the underserved sectors of the Philippine society. Nonetheless, the future for the party-list system is still bright despite such failures. As Dr. Florangel Rosario Braid of the Justice Cecilia Munoz Palma Foundation said: Those who argue that it [the party-list system] should be retained, and in fact strengthened, point to how it has been able to balance our â€Å"elite† democracy by providing representation to sectors which otherwise would have been excluded under our present political system. But how do we deal with blatant abuses like having individuals who had never been a part of the group that they are expected to represent? . . . It is about time that the system should be examined by groups from various sectors of society [emphasis added]. The party-list system as the sole legal or constitutional means by which the underrepresented and the marginalized sectors of the Philippine society assert their rights and be part of the Philippine legislature, despite its failure, should be braced and strengthened so as to serve its purpose truly.