Saturday, August 31, 2019
As we develop into leaders, one of the things we need to know is what it means to be a servant leader. Today such examples are greatly lacking. Servant leadership is a choice by a leader to follow the example of The Jesus Christ and The Mother Teresa and lead by serving, becoming a bondservant and giving his life for others. Servant leadership is an inner attitude of the heart by which a person chooses to place himself or herself under the leadership of Jesus Christ and Mother Teresa. Christ often invited people to follow him. Some followed and many did not. One of the things to understand is the difference between obedience and submission. A person in authority or general leader in our present society can command for obedience. Submission, on the other hand, is a choice by the follower to choose to follow a leader, and also an inner attitude of the heart can never be commanded. Some chose to submit to Christ and followed him. Many chose not to submit to Christ and followed other religious leaders. Christ gives us the freedom to make the choice not to follow or submit. Most religious leaders out there serve the people and community first. The characteristics of a servant leadership as seen by Robert Greenleaf are Ã¢â¬Å"listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people and building the community.Ã¢â¬ (Greenleaf, 2002, p. #19-25) The first and most important characteristic of an excellent servant leader is listening. A servant leader always listens to the concerns of his/her co-workers, staff members, or patients and tries to find the most appropriate or the best solution to a problem. Leaders have traditionally been valued for their communication and decision-making skills. Although these are also important skills for servant leaders, they need to be reinforced by a deep commitment to listen intently to others. By listening intently, servant leaders seek to identify the will of their group members and help to clarify that will. For example, Mother Teresa had always listened to the concerns and conditions of the poor and needy people; therefore, she dedicated her life into servicing and taking care of people who needed help and fulfilled her main purpose in life by believing that, Ã¢â¬Å"Service to human is service to GodÃ¢â¬ Listening is essential to the growth and well-being of a servant leader. Second, empathy is another important characteristic of an excellent leader. A servant leader strives to understand and empathize with others. People need to be accepted andÃ recognized for their specialty and uniqueness. An excellent servant leader assumes the good intentions of co-workers and colleagues and does not reject them as people, even when one may be forced to accept certain behaviors. For example, Mother Teresa said that, Ã¢â¬Å"The biggest disease today is not leprosy or tuberculosis, but rather the feeling of being unwanted.Ã¢â¬ We can see Mother Teresa in her missionary work because she had established orphanages, leprosy outreach clinics, shelters for the homeless, the poor, the disabled, and the blind. Third, healing is one of the most vital characteristics of an excellent servant leader. One of the greatest strengths of servant leadership is the potential for healing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship to others. Many people have broken spirits and suffered from a variety of emotional hurts. Although this is a part of being human, servant leaders recognize that they have an opportunity to help those with whom they come into contact. For example, Mother Teresa showed her empathy toward the diseased and hungry people by providing them with bandages, medicine, and nutritious food. Fourth, a crucial characteristic of an excellent servant leader is awareness. General awareness, especially self-awareness, strengthens servant leaders. Awareness helps one to understand issues involving ethics, power, and values. It lends itself to being able to view most situations from a more integrated, holistic position. For example, Jesus Christ had cured many people who were suffering from leprosy and gave life to many dead people, but he told them not to tell anyone because Jesus Christ knew that only he could make miracle happen, and if rumor had spread about his miracle, then his work of service would be opposed by other religious leaders. Fifth, another important characteristic of servant leaders is reliance on persuasion, rather than using oneÃ¢â¬â¢s positional authority in making decisions within an organization. A successful servant leader seeks to convince others, rather than giving orders to their workers to follow his/her decision. This particular element offers one of the clearest distinctions between the traditional authoritarian model and that of servant leadership. A servant leader is effective at building harm ony within his/her group. For example, Mother Teresa had persuaded others to help her eradicate the poverty and diseases by providing medicine, bandages, food, and clothes to people who needed them. The sixth characteristic of an excellent servant leader is conceptualization and foresight. The ability toÃ look at a problem from a conceptualizing perspective means that one must think beyond day-to-day realities. While a traditional leader is more likely to be consumed by the need to achieve short-term operational goals. A servant leader, instead, stretches his or her thinking to encompass broader-based conceptual thinking. The ability to conceptualize is also very closely related to the ability to have foresight. Foresight is a characteristic that enables the servant leader to understand the lessons from the past, the realities of the present, and the likely consequences of a decision for the future. For example, Mother Teresa knew that although she followed Catholicism, she should not preach her religion to people since it would be opposed by the Hindus because they would think that Mother Teresa was converting them from Hinduism to Christianity, and the government of India would stop her service to humanity. The seventh essential characteristic of an excellent servant leader is stewardship. As per definition.com, the stewardship is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"holding something in trust for another.Ã¢â¬ Stewardship means an institution in which CEO, staff members, and trustees all play significant roles in holding their institutions in trust for the greater good of society. Servant leadership, like stewardship, assumes first and foremost a commitment to serving the needs of others. It also emphasizes the use of openness and persuasion, rather than control. For example, Mother Teresa used her ability of persuasion to tell others to help her in the noble cause and invited decision of every individual to give better care and services to diseased and poor people. The eighth and essential characteristic of an excellent servant leader is a commitment to the growth of people and building community. Servant leaders believe that people have an intrinsic value beyond their contributions as workers. A servant leader also recognizes the tremendous responsibility to do everything in his or her power to nurture personal and professional growth of employees and colleagues. In practice, this can include actions such as making funds available for personal and professional development, and encouraging workers to be involved in decision-making. Servant leaders also seek to identify some means for building community among those who work within a given institution. Servant leadership suggests that true community can be created among those who work in businesses and other institutions. For example, Mother Teresa had persuaded others to help her with raisingÃ funds to establish clinics for people with diseases and to buy clothes, slippers, and food for poor people. By doing this, she had built a better community within society in many countries of the world. At last, I would like to conclude that servant leaders seek to involve others in decision making, and servant leadership is strongly based on ethical and caring behaviors. It also enhances the growth of workers while improving the caring and quality of organizational life by employing the characteristics like listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, and commitment to the growth of people and building the community. Indeed, servant leadership offers great hope for the future in creating better, more caring, institutions.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Cat in the Rain is a short story about an American couple on vacation to Italy. They are in their first year of marriage. The husband has a dismissive attitude towards the wife and the wife always wants more. In the story the couple has a lot of selfishness going on in their relationship. The husband ignores his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and the wife and the wife is not satisfied with her husband. The theme of this story has a lot to do with loneliness in the couplesÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship. In this story the American couple is trapped in their hotel room with nothing to do because of the raining weather. The husband wants to read and ignore his wife. So the wife is looking out the window and sees a cat crouched from the rain. She wants to go downstairs and get the cat. She tells her husband about it and he shrugs it off. The wife goes down herself and the story talks a lot about how she likes the inn keeper. I find that this part of the story most affected me when the husband ignored his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s wants and needs. She really wanted that cat because it was something for her to do and feel good about. Her husband obviously doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfy her which makes her feel lonely and the cat would keep her company. The wife in this story wants to feel appreciated and loved like any other woman would. Being married for their first year is beginning to be hard for them. Hemingway tries to tell about a first marriage of a couple he once knew and how hard it is for some to always keep that happiness. Couples always have disagreements but should never feel alone. A husband should not ignore his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and in this story that is what he does instead of trying to satisfy his wife. Close to the ending of this story the wife was not able to find the cat. She came back in the hotel room very sad. She tries to tell her husband but he does not listen. She starts complaining about what she wants to change about herself. She wants Ã¢â¬Å"her hair to be long so she can brush itÃ¢â¬ and she wants a cat. The husband can only say that he likes things the way they are. He tells her to shut up. He does not care what the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are or what she wants. He does not want to listen and he just wants to read which is what he wishes she would do. This part of the story really interested me because I could not get as to why the husband doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond to what she asks for. The wife desperately wants attention and he is not giving it to her. The story of the American couple explains a lot about how the wife tries to get attention from the husband. Hemingway talks about a cat but behind that cat this story means more. The lack of attention her husband gives her may make her feel that she is restricted on expressing herself and keeps most of her feelings inside. The cat stays compact to stay dry outside, which is how the wife feels she has to be with her husband to make him happy. She hides herself constantly from him. In this story it relates to her as American wife and never tells her name. This kind of says that she is nothing but an American wife which is exactly how she feels. Hemingway had a unique way of telling the story but the way he told it had a lot of meaning to it. He showed the couples loneliness in a different way.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
It is believed that the United States allocates approximately 316 billion dollars a year on these groups. Distant from securing companies, they also provide security for the police, and government officials. Most of them are ex-special forces, and veterans. Some are ex-cons. Some people refer to them as mercenaries, and some people call them builders. Others would describe the mission as training other soldiers. They are used all around the world, providing different services in support of the United States Military. What is their role? Student, Dylan Fujitani in his research policy argument, Ã¢â¬Å"The hardest of the hardcoreÃ¢â¬ writes an article suggesting the removal of private contractors from the Middle East. It suggests that there is a common misconception that people are confused between the difference of civilian contractors, mercenaries, people in the military, and that civilian contractors should not adopt a military role. He adopts a serious tone in order to clutch the attention of his audience. There are a lot of misconceptions to what some may believe the key objectives of the support staff/private contractors/ mercenaries are in the Middle East, and Congress must swiftly act to level the playing field between US military personnel and private security contractors. Most of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s points in the essay seem relevant, and consistent with my past experiences in dealing with private contractors. I agree that there is a common misconception about the role of the private contractor/mercenary. Historically, the mercenary is a soldier for hire, however, the private contractor also has different dignitary support roles. Fujitani successfully uses pathos in his essay to persuade his audience particularly when he suggests that the use of mercenaries circumvents public, and congressional scrutiny of some aspects of war (Fujitani 374). The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose here is trying to persuade people, by giving an emotional appeal that civilian contractors (who have questionable prior backgrounds) are armed, are given essentially given legal immunity. Another example of Fujitani using pathos is when he said that placing more contractors in the theater of war is a good way to keep US troops numbers down, but politically itÃ¢â¬â¢s more expensive. Here he is suggesting that the United States is trying to mask the severity of war. Even though he provided examples from both sides of the case, heÃ¢â¬â¢s extremely ineffective in this area because it seems he was not concerned with presenting the counterargument fair-mindedly. Although the writer uses pathos in this particular section part of his essay, most of this paper is logos heavy. These styles of comparison help the writer convey to his audience a sense of importance by using the language that is quite familiar to the military. He indeed uses language that was easy for military, and nonmilitary personnel to understand. The writer seems very prejudiced, however, uses citations to support his opinion. I agree with the writer on the information that was presented, and how he was able to break down the concepts. I understand what he proposes when he references the role of civilian mercenaries. The writer was able to convince readers that his opinion was truly legit using ethos by referencing several published articles from credible sources. The reference New York Times article also gives good examples to support his reasoning. In contrast to what the writer believes, I believe that there is a position that supports the private contracting business overseas. The writer clearly overlooks some important points that should be noted on the contrary. In my experience, I believe civilian contractors provide essential support services to the United States military. It is imperative that the military should not waste valuable resources, and manpower on support positions. To the contrary of what most people think, war is not always shooting at people, capturing prisoners, and kicking down doors 24 hours a day. A lot of essential jobs are in support. The use of private contractors help with convoys, logistics, and food services help free up essential manpower for the military to concentrate on high mission profile assignments. In conclusion, the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay was ineffective because I believe that his essay appeals to one type of audience. The writer seems to not have any knowledge of how wartime operations are drawn out and conducted. Although not perfect, I believe that the use of private contractors are essential and should not be completely weeded out the process. On the contrary, he was effective because I think he used mostly logos to appeal to his audience. He references essentially six principles on why private contractors/mercenaries should be extremely downscaled. He starts off by reference in how mercenaries disguised the true cost of war. Here he explains how civilian contractors actually disguise the number of deployed troops. He goes on and references how civilian contractors have no loyalties, and ultimately answer only to their employers and not the military. He again uses logos by citing a report on how mercenaries assigned in Saudi Arabia left their post indefinitely, because they were not comfortable. Fujanti then moves to tie the two points together making a clear contrast on how the US military, and civilian mercenaries are accountable to the Geneva Convention. He describes how civilian mercenaries have no accountability to the law to whereas the US military does. The mercenaries are considered Ã¢â¬Å"noncombatantsÃ¢â¬ and therefore it is difficult for them to fall within the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The writer closes his argument by expressing how private contractors frequently hire employees with questionable backgrounds. He appeals to his audience by citing an article from the New York Times how 1500 S. African mercenaries are now in the Iraqi area. He expresses that many of the people that are participating admitted to being former apartheid mercenaries. Fujanti is clearly frustrated knowing that these kinds of practices are frequently carried, nothings done about it, and moves to propose his solution by conveying that the problems that were discussed earlier needs to be addressed by Congress swiftly, and immediately to protect the legitimate uses of war from market forces, lawlessness, and the abuse of power.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Strategic Environment - Assignment Example In this period, there has been an increased threat to U.S national security, more than ever before. There are several factors contributing to these threats such as increased development of weapons of mass destruction, more countries becoming a nuclear power, increased formation of a terrorist organization, rebellious groups taking refuge in other countries and operating against U.S interests etc. It can easily be seen that, during the 21 century, there has been an increased threat to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s security and national interests. The infamous 9/11 incident that shook the world and brought Al Qaeda on the big screen, the London bombings of 2005, the Mumbai attack in 2008 etc. All these infamous incidents show that every country is under extreme threat whether it is from terrorist organizations, infiltrates within the country or due to any other reason. It is very obvious that a country has to take steps and measures to protect its country and U.S being a global and nuclear power and a world dominant it is very natural to say that it has to safeguard its interests the most. It is safe to assume that the U.S would have the best strategic intelligence cycle in place, but it too is liable to mistakes, such as in 2003 when the strategic intelligence information confirmed that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and therefore invaded Iraq; however, later they were proved wrong as there were no WMD(Johnson 2007). There have been several factors identified by the National Intelligence Security (NIS) which may cause harm to U.S National interests, however the most significant are: Violent Extremism: It has been identified by the NIS that violent extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda, Taliban etc will continue to pose a great threat to U.S security. It has been acknowledged that these people are not causing threat for the purpose of acquiring money or abduction but they are seriously out for what they call revenge and will take any possible steps to cause dish armony and violence in different regions. They have previously done that on several occasions and in different countries such as U.S, U.K etc which shows that they can reach such places even when there is tightest of security present. The steps identified by the U.S to counter them is to identify such terrorist groups and people, intercede and disrupt, cut off aid and supply of weapons of mass destruction and stop their operations. Enhance Cyber security: Enhancement of cyber security is a significant step that the U.S should take in order to reduce the threat of proliferation through cyber space. It has been identified that the architecture of U.S digital structure is not very secure (Johnson 2007). It was found out that there have been attempts to valuable information from the Pentagon through cyber space. Now, all the information is stored digitally, so there has been an increased attempt by these terrorist groups to explore future advancements of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence or ganizations, so they may act accordingly. Through cyber space these terrorist organizations have attempted to change or steal information in order to undermine the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and attack the country (Johnson 2007). Increased use of Wifi etc has made internet vulnerable and terrorist could easily hack password of a normal user of Wifi and use it to steal
Logistics and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example In the modern world, when supply chain management and the philosophy of logistics are combined in an efficient manner a company can become richer and more powerful than any emperor of the past. Supply chain management not only allows the right people to have the right things at the right time, it also makes sure that there is no wastage in the process and the overall costs of the business are reduced (Van Hoek, 2005). Every business decision and every business choice comes with an associated cost which must be borne by the shareholders or the owners of the business which means that costs need to be reduced to ensure a healthy profit. Supply chain management does exactly that by cutting down costs in several important areas of business (Christopher, 2005). Lummus and Demarie (2006) give the example of supply chain management experts such as Renee Gregoire and James Correll who discussed the importance of supply chain management at the end of the last century. The future predictions made by them suggested that global competition and heightened customer demands of quality and speed would cause drastic changes in supply chain management. They further suggested that heavy industry, manufacturing and retail would be primary areas in which the supply chain management process as well as the philosophy of logistics would change in a significant manner. Of course the threats to the global supply chain today extend far deeper than a lack of insight or mismanagement since security is also a top concern for supply chain management professionals (Blanchard, 2006). We certainly find this to be true today if we examine the current structures of the global corporations which have to deal with new threats against them and new hostilities coming from various sources (Blanchard, 2006). However, in business terms, the primary motivation is the rise in customer expectations that seek individualized products to be delivered to them in record time.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
VAMPIRE SOCIAL FEAR - Essay Example The concept of the existence of vampires was further glorified by eminent classic and contemporary literature authors that have created frenzy amongst the masses regarding the existence of these creatures. (Belanger, 2005, p. 49) As mentioned earlier, on a literary front the idea of vampires have fascinated, amazed and scared people throughout the ages. The belief in the existence of demons and spirits has been a prime aspect of all faiths and are often deemed to be the forerunners of the creation and concept of vampires; a dead blood-sucking nocturnal being that is largely associated with evil and the damned. Roman, Greek and Mesopotamian cultures all had a common notion regarding the existence of vampires but the concept itself gained more shape in Eastern Europe, where the legends narrated that vampires were revenants of sinner, suicide victims, people involved in witchcraft and corpses under the possession of malicious spirits or people who died of vampire bites. There were count less speculation regarding the appearance of vampires and before human physical features were used to typify Vampires, they were vastly believed to bestial creatures, which were damned for the rest of eternity and their existence was only meant to plague the living. The Description of the appearance of vampires is illustrated immaculately by the following quote from Sacred Hunger authored by Michelle Belanger, a self-proclaimed Psychic-vampire, who has published several books on this entire concept and has demonstrated the contrasts between the media portrayal and folkloric image of vampires, she states, Ã¢â¬Å"The vampire has come a long way since its beginnings in folkloresÃ¢â¬ ¦ Though, monstrosity in their hungers there is an ineffable something that inspires their so-called Ã¢â¬ËVictimsÃ¢â¬â¢ to willingly open their veins. Yet in stark contrast, the vampires we encounter in the tales of Eastern Europe are little more than corpses. These foul and bestial monsters terrorize whole villages, filing their victims with horror and disgust.Ã¢â¬ (Belanger, 2005, p. 14) Therefore, from the aforementioned quote it is abundantly clear that there is a huge schism between the perception of vampires in contemporary and the portrayal of folklores. Belanger has defined the true meaning of vampirism and the prevalence of this belief in gothic sub-cultures. It has become more of an identity for people and the term Ã¢â¬ËvampirismÃ¢â¬â¢ itself is not used to signify bestial behavior or monstrosity, and is now given similar connotations as people who are left-handed; the latter due to the widespread belief that left-handed people are evil. The aforementioned analogy describes that vampirism is no longer emblematic of a blood-thirsty creature but all those people who are in pursuit of vital energy. However, this is still a subjective approach to the subject and having mentioned the prose will focus its attention back to the area under discussion that is whether or no t the social fear derived from these creatures is in anyway valid and the amount of insight provided by literature and conception of fictional characters to demonstrate this aspect. Therefore, the substance of the following prose will juxtapose the folkloric illustration of these creatures and how authors have portrayed the image of these creatures. In order to gain greater amount of insight in to the subject, the prose will
Monday, August 26, 2019
Understanding conflict management in the workplace - Essay Example Understanding conflict management in the workplace Causes of conflicts at work Conflicts in the work places arise from various factors. First are the personality clashes. Based on the fact that each of the employees has his or her own personality, their ideas may differ thus resulting to a crash. Secondly is the dominance issue. During their daily duties, employees are engaged with their managers while in a meeting or other social activities. In the process some employees tend to be authoritative to their colleagues while actually they are not in a management level as a result other employees feel discriminated resulting to a conflict. One of the issues that caused a conflict at Peytons General Supplies, my place of work was the failure to communicate openly and honestly. One of our sales executive took a client who belonged to another sales representative without communicating it and started selling our brands to him. After the two learnt they are dealing with the same client a conflict emerged that called for the intervention of th e director. Another cause of conflict in my organization is stressful situations. Based on our busy schedule, I have noticed that some of my colleagues have been engaged in conflicts and when we intervene in our efforts to solve the issue, we realize that they are mostly stressed. Climate of mistrust and competition among the employees is another cause of conflicts in both at small and large firms.... Within an organization, it is vital for individual to identify the basis stages of conflict in order to handle it effectively. Conflicts happen in eight stages. The first one is the situation where there is no conflict. During this stage, employees are working normally. Secondly is the latent conflict. This implies that there is small but hidden conflict among the individuals or teams. The third stage is the emergence. During this stage, the actual conflicts occur. However, only the subjects involved in the conflicts are aware of it. During escalation which is the fourth stage, the conflicts grow and it is possible for any one around to see that there is a conflict between the parties. The fifth stage is the stalemate. During this stage, each of the parties involved blames the other and becomes hard for anyone to settle the conflict. Stalemate may stay for a long time thus individuals intervening to solve the conflict must use effective tactics to bring together the parties involved in the conflict. The sixth stage is the De-escalation. This means that the conflicts starts to decrease and the parties involved can now meet and try to settle their differences. The seventh stage is settlement or resolution. This entails coming up with the solution to the cause of the conflict. The last stage is peace building and reconciliation. After the conflict, it is fundamental that the parties engage in regular meetings and discuss issue that affects them as a way of creating peace. Effects of conflict on individual and team performance at work Conflict is one of the key issues that can cause reduction in the productivity of the employees as well as the profitability of a firm. At the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
FORTH ROAD BRIDGE MAINTENANCE - Coursework Example This paper examines maintenance/upgrading/repair of the bridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s crucial members, with particular emphasis on the main cables. This, in the context of identification of the faults associated with the cables, and the methodology adopted in repair or remedy of the observed damages. The techniques involved/applied in the maintenance of this bridge will also be discussed. Recommendations will be made, and where appropriate, alternative repair methods would be suggested. The methodology entails a critical assessment based on literature research, hence references will be made to available studies on the subject, and where necessary, other relevant material would be cited. The maintenance of the Forth Road bridge is multi-dimensional in nature. Generally, there could be a categorisation into two broad classes: (a) small to medium-sized maintenance operations, and (b) major operations. The first category serves the general purpose of simply keeping the bridge usable, while the second category serves the more vital purpose of enhancing, improving or elevating the serviceability of the structure to a higher level. It is noteworthy that training of staff, risk assessments and method statements are carried out prior to any task, to ensure that work is carried out as safely as possible. This can perhaps be described as yet another dimension of these maintenance operations, impacting on quality of the procedures involved, in the context of safety. A number of simple or basic operations have been identified in connection with maintenance of this bridge. There are, for instance, routine tasks during the summer months involving the washing of the steelwork of the suspended span truss with freshwater to remove surface salts and guano. There are, and have been, small to medium-sized maintenance works carried out since the Forth Road Bridge commenced service, and, in this context, these
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Management - Essay Example This paper will focus on the relationship that exists between the organisational project and the risk management application. In addition, the paper will also discuss the importance of risk management system implementation to achieving the objectives of the project. The paper mainly focuses on the project management and project risk management. The first part of the report discusses what project management is and the merits and demerits of the project management. It also highlights the success factors in the project and the project progress control. The second part of the report focusses on the projects risk management and the role of the success in the project. Finally, the final section of the report gives a clear description of the project, which is the international conference organisation and its alignment to risk and project management in projects (Kutsch & Hall 2010, pp.245Ã¢â¬â255). The project chosen for analysis is in the field of construction, there is a risk manageme nt process that will encompass all the phases of a lifecycle of constructing an infrastructure. The construction of footpath along major roads in the cities was chosen to ease pedestrianÃ¢â¬â¢s movement. A project is a temporary activity that is designed specifically to produce products that are unique, services or results. Projects do have definite beginnings and ending time. They operate within a particular scope and resources. Projects are unique activities since they are not done on a routine operation, but they are on precise sets of operations that are precisely meant to accomplish particular individual goals (Tesch et al. 2007, pp.61Ã¢â¬â69). Therefore, project management is the application of skills, tools, knowledge and techniques to the activities of the project to meeting the requirements of the project. The realization of project management is through integration and application of the process of project management of initiation, planning, execution,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Poor Interpersonal Skills - Essay Example The action plan to deal with the situation is to have a personal meeting with Bethany to address the issue. I must come prepared with evidence of the problem including employee complaints, a periodical evaluation of her performance, and any other source documents to establish a pattern of her inability to communicate effectively. In the meeting I should reiterate to Bethany that the company believes in her abilities as a professional in the accounting field, but that it is imperative for her to improve certain aspects of her behavior at work particularly those associated with her interpersonal abilities. As a manager Bethany now has more responsibilities and the firm expects more out of her. In the meeting I will tell Bethany that her job is not at risk and that an action is going to be created to remedy the situation. After the initial meeting I will arrange another meeting in two weeks to provide an action plan for Bethany to improve her communication skills. I will seek the assist ance of the human resource department in this matter.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Freas and Geeks Media techniques Essay How Media Techniques Create Stereotypes in Freaks and Geeks Take a look again at high school stereotypes through the short lived television series from the late 90Ã¢â¬â¢s, Freaks and Geeks. Based on the pilot episode of Freaks and Geeks, media techniques are used effectively to depict the different stereotypes in high school. The camera shots movements are used adequately to show the power of the bullies and the weakness of the victims. For example, when Sam Weir is approached by Alan (the bully), at lunch, the camera is pointed upwards towards AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s face to make him seem bigger and scarier while the camera would be pointed down on SamÃ¢â¬â¢s face making him seem smaller and inferior to Alan (Kasdan 1999). This example shows effective use of media techniques by using camera shots because the audience can easily depict the two different stereotypes, the bully and the geek. Another way that media techniques are used effectively is through the use of setting. For instance, the Ã¢â¬Å"freaksÃ¢â¬ of the show are shown hanging around the patio which is a dirty and worn down area separated from the field and other students (Kasdan 1999). This is a clear way for the audience to see the difference from the regular students and the Ã¢â¬Å"freaksÃ¢â¬ therefore making this media technique effective. These two techniques show how Freaks and Geeks uses media techniques effectively to illustrate the stereotypes one might see in high school. Using media techniques such as camera shots and setting effectively is a task that Freaks and Geeks has accomplished to portray different high school stereotypes.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Rabindranath Tagore Essay The first Asian Nobel Prize winner for Literature, a cultural hero, and an international figure, Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7th May 1861 in Calcutta, India. Tagore speaks to an optimistic assortment of the ripened Indian custom and the new European awareness. Globally, Gitanjali is Tagores best-known accumulation of poetry and Tagore was granted the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his book Gitanjali, which contains the essence of an Indian artistic tradition. Tagore was an unofficial diplomat to the world and laid India on the legendary map of the world. Indeed today, he has been an inspiration and nourishment for millions of Indians. In the hearts of an Indians and most specifically Bengalis, Rabindranath TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s overpowering impression is huge. Gitanjali is an assortment of a number of themes and ideas. The lyrics explore the relationship between God and Man, individual and humanity. It gives a good reason for the ways of man to God and the other way around, too. It Ã¢â¬Å"expresses in perfect language permanent human impulsesÃ¢â¬ , and thus passes the test of great poetry as laid down by T. S. Eliot. Here poetry has become an exposure and invocation. It shows an inner reality of millions of Indians, especially Bengali people. It is the best creation of Rabindranath Tagore that regarded as an independent piece with its own theme and personality, and tried to tell the tale of his life using various characters. Mainly Gitanjali rewards in logical theory, spiritual tie-ups and an inspiration. It decoratively treats Death and God. It is supernatural in its abstract character, emotional anxiety of thought that may be transformed into the imagery of dreams, logical beauty, moralistic mind, strength, ethical content, and divine love. Even more, by the end Tagore expressed that Death is the last stage of our life. It is completely unavoidable, and one has to surrender themselves. When the death strikes, people who were ignored or rejected earlier will appear more valuable. To avoid that situation, one must love well while he/she is alive. One should be ready when the summons comes from God without any bitter feelings. The soul dispossessed of all the worldly goods will reach God in a sweeterÃ manner. An Irish Senator, and a constructor of an Irish and British literary William Butler Yeats, said, Mr. Tagore, like the Indian civilization itself, has been content to discover the soul and surrender himself to the spontaneity and also added, At times I wonder if he has it from the literature of Bengal or religion. His divine values of Hinduism were deep rooted in his ancestry and in his own long and hard-fought experience, and they found constant expression in every aspect of his extraordinary life.Ã¢â¬ Marcel Proust A French novelist, critic, and essayist, Valentin Louis Georges EugÃ ¨ne Marcel Proust was born on 10th July 1871. He was known for his epic novel Ã¢â¬Å"In Search of Lost TimeÃ¢â¬ . The novel was published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927. He is deliberated by one of the greatest authors. He described particularly decline of the upper class and the rise of the middle classes that occurred in France during the Third Republic and the fin de siÃ ¨cle in this epic novel. After the unsuccessful endeavor of composing a novel, Proust used a few years composing interpretations and expounding the works of the English craftsmanship history specialist John Ruskin. He was likewise a productive letter essayist. The work for which he is normally regularly recollected is In Search of Lost Time or Recognition of Things Past. Proust has likewise been known as the originator of the present day novel, looked upon as an issue impact on pioneer style. An English novelist and an author Graham Greene once wrote: Proust was the greatest novelist of the twentieth century, just as Tolstoy was in the nineteenth. For those who began to write at the end of the twenties or the beginning of the thirties, there were two great inescapable influences: Proust and Freud, who are mutually complementary. Moreover, Peter Englund, the Nobel AcademyÃ¢â¬â¢s permanent secretary, said Ã¢â¬Å"He is not at all difficult to read. He looks very simple in a sense because he has a very refined, simple, straight, clear style. You open a page and see that it is Proust, very straight, short sentences, no frills Ã¢â¬ ¦ but it is very, very sophisticated in that simplicity.Ã¢â¬ Thomas Stearns Eliot A literary and social critic, publisher, playwright, an essayist, Thomas Stearns Eliot was born on 26th September 1888 at St. Louis, the Missouri to an old Yankee family. He considered as one of the twentieth centurys major poets. Eliot had such a big impact on writing that it cant be precisely measured, however it is surely gigantic. It is genuinely likely that very nearly every free verse writer that succeeded him has tired, straightforwardly or by implication, from his sweeping collection of principles. Through Eliots essays and especially through his poetry, he played a significant part in building the modernist conception of poetry. His poetry is culturally allusive, ironic, and impersonal in manner. Moreover, they were organized by associative rather than logical connections and difficult at times to the point of isolation. His impact on literature in the twentieth century was significant. However, notwithstanding the validity .and spreading of his finest and most well-known essays, Eliot couldnt have achieved the modernist revolution by ruling alone. He succeeded just through the sample of his superb poetry. His poetry will survive undiminished as his critical influence waxes and wanes, and as the points of interest of his profession retreat into literary history. Perhaps the realest and clear example of Eliots intelligent influence is in the books of writers such as Derek Walcott and Kamau Brathwaite. Charles W. Pollard holds them as illustrations of non-Western pioneers impacted by the divided nature of Eliots work. He proposes that a large portion of the distinctions are because of how these two writers fuse components of their cultures. Moreover improver about the part of verse in the public arena and its relationship to typical discourse, to structure their styles and customs, while staying inside the post-Eliot innovator fold. Nawal EL Saadawi Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician and psychiatrist Nawal El Saadawi was born October 27, 1931. She has written many books on the subject of woman in islam paying particular attention to the practice of female genital mutilation in her society. Although Women and Sex created a huge controversy in Egypt for its frank discussion of the sexuality of women, ElÃ Saadawi was unknown to most Western audiences until 1980, when Ã¢â¬Å"The Hidden Face of EveÃ¢â¬ was translated into English. In this accumulation portray female genital mutilation, narrative the principles and regulations overseeing the lives of ladies, and recount the troubles and disgrace connected with being a lady in an oppressive patriarchal society. El Saadawi was impacted by what she encountered in her life as an issue. By the seeing of mortifying and unreasonable practices. This has headed her to stand up in backing of political and sexual rights for ladies and continually emphasize ladies energy in safety. For instance, at age of six, El Saadawis family constrained her to experience a clitoridectomy, and as a grown-up she expounded on and censured the act of female and male genital mutilation. Her initial work is viewed as spearheading in present day womens activist fiction in Arabic. Since the 1970s she started to scrutinize straightforwardly the patriarchal framework and tackle unthinkable issues: female circumcision, abortion, sexuality, child abuse, and different forms of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression. Saadawi has expressed the view that women are oppressed by religions. In a 2014 interview Saadawi said that the root of the oppression of women lies in the global post-modern capitalist system, which is supported by religious fundamentalism Chinua Achebe A Nigerian novelist, poet, professor and critic, Chinua Achebe was born on 16 November 1930. His first novel Ã¢â¬Å"Things Fall ApartÃ¢â¬ was considered his magnum opus,and is the most widely read book in modern African literature. A writer of more than 20 books, he was commended worldwide for advising African stories to an enraptured world group of onlookers. He was likewise concurred his nations most noteworthy recompense for educated accomplishment, the Nigerian National Merit Award. Achebe is a significant piece of African writing, and is prevalent everywhere throughout the landmass for his books, particularly Ant colony dwelling places of the Savannah, which was shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1987, and Things Fall Apart. The recent was obliged perusing in endless secondary schools and universities in the mainland, and has been deciphered into many dialects. He likewise reprimanded defilement and poor administration in Africa, and had been known to reject honors by the Nigerian government to dissent political issues. Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan said,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Achebes frank, truthful and fearless interventions in national affairs will be greatly missed at home, Jonathan said. While others may have disagreed with his views, most Nigerians never doubted his immense patriotism and sincere commitment to the building of a greater, more united and prosperous nation. Moreover, a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, philanthropist and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela said, Ã¢â¬Å"he brought Africa to the rest of the world. Gabriel GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rque Gabriel GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rquez, the Nobel Prize-winning Colombian author who drenched the world in the compelling ebbs and flows of enchantment authenticity, making an abstract style that mixed reality, myth, love and misfortune in an arrangement of candidly rich books that made him a standout amongst the most venerated and powerful authors of the twentieth century. Mr. Gabriel GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rquez, was a writer, author, screenwriter, dramatist, memoirist and understudy of political history and pioneer writing. Through the quality of his keeping in touch with, he turned into a social symbol who charged a boundless open after and who now and again drew fire for his relentless backing of Cuban pioneer Fidel Castro. In his books, novellas and short stories, Mr. Gabriel GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rquez tended to the topics of love, depression, passing and force. His masterpiece were One Hundred Years of Solitude, The Autumn of the Patriarch and Love in the Time of Cholera. By melding two apparently divergent abstract conventions Ã¢â¬â the realist and the fabulist Ã¢â¬â Mr. GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rquez progressed an element abstract structure, enchantment authenticity, that appeared to catch both the secretive and the unremarkable characteristics of life in a rotting South American city. For many writers and readers , it opened up another method for comprehension their nations and themselves. 44th and Current President of the United States of America, President Obama said in a statement Ã¢â¬Å"The world has lost one of its greatest visionary writers Ã¢â¬â and one of my favorites from the time I was young,Ã¢â¬ Moreover he added that Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Marquez is a representative and voice for the people of the Americas.Ã¢â¬ Works Cited A Poem Translated by the Author from from the Original Bengali CollectionÃ Gitanjali. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. . AimÃ © Fernand CÃ ©saire. Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. . Biography: T. S. Eliot. 2001. Pearson Education. 3 Mar. 2005 . Kandell, Jonathan. Gabriel GarcÃ a MÃ ¡rquez, Conjurer of Literary Magic, Dies at 87. The New York Times. The New York Times, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. . Pollard, Charles W. New World Modernisms. 4 June 2004. University of Virginia Press. 2 Mar. 2005 Proust, Marcel. Marcel Proust. NewYork TImes. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. . Remembering Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Storyteller Who Resonated with Readers around the World. PBS. PBS. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. . Tah, Shari. The Innocence of the Devil. Berkeley: U of California, 1994. Print.
Human Comfort And Thermal Comfort Engineering Essay Abstract: The main purpose of the HVAC system is to achieve clean indoor air quality and human comfort (thermal comfort), there are many HVAC systems a designer or owner has the option to select based on the factors such as the type of the building, architecture, location, shape, surrounding climate, occupancy, envelop, level and frequency of activities, and the system operation schedule. In addition to the above base factors that an HVAC system is expected to be selected upon, the energy consumption, system efficiency, initial and operational cost, and finally, feasibility (short and long term rebound positive effect) are of the owners and designers critical concerns. This paper will discuss the elements of a typical feasible high performance low cost, fine tuned HVAC DDC integrated system to achieve the best for users, owners, and environment. 1. Introduction HVAC and its associated auxiliaries system are major energy consumers in a building, the rapid development of the advanced technology nowadays boosts the HVAC system feasibility as more complex control systems are developed for this industry and additional fine-tune, prompt response, standardized communication, ease of control and monitor, and remote accessibility. The BMS/DDC (Building Management System/ Direct Digital Control) integrated system is the core of a good feasible high-efficient HVAC system. The BMS is the most recent High-Tech energy management system that manage a building performance to the maximum desirable pre-determined set of parameters which able to control, monitor, adjust, save and record mostly all of the building facilities and utilities when integrated with all of the compatible buildings Sub-LANs, a DDC is one of those LANs and can communicate with other control LANs under the supervision of the BMS. BMS is able to supervise, control, adjust and record the illumination, electric power control, HVAC, security and observation, magnetic card and access, fire alarm, lifts, and other engineering systems. Integrated with the BMS, the DDC performs the HVAC control management and communicates with the other building controllers via the BMS to achieve integration based on a specified, programmed event sequence. I The DDC is the heart of an efficient HVAC system, it finely tunes the digital/analog input/output communication between sensors, probes, stand-alone controllers, LANs controllers, and finally the controlled element which could be an actuator that adjust the process variable (flow, temperature, level, or pressure), and allows for a feedback signal to further adjust the desired process set-point. This whole process is reported in a real-time manner to the BMS system for further coordination with the other buildings controllable systems to achieve integration based on the pre-programmed parameters. In order to achieve the highest human comfort, energy saving, and a long term rebound effect strategy, The BMS/DDC system should be interlocked and integrated with a high-efficient and feasible HVAC system, this combination can awards energy saving, system and environment sustainability, human comfort, and business feasibility. An Optimal Air System is a good example of a low-coast, high-performance, energy-efficient and a good investment for long-term rebound pay-back effect. Optimal Air System concept is based on the low temperature supply system that needs, less energy consumption by the most energy consumer auxiliary that is the fan, this affects the sizing of the ducts (less duck size), air handling units and fan motors, all of which will be smaller and results in a system that requires less space and uses less power. As this paper focuses on the HVAC/DDC integrated system application for human comfort, energy saving, and feasibility (long-term rebound effect), I will discuss and focus on the DDC and Optimal Air System integration for the above purposes and define characteristics, elements, and functions of both systems. II 2. DDC DDC has became the latest and the most recently used system for HVAC controls after the pneumatic and electromechanical control systems, digital pre-programmable controllers can handle extensive digital/analog data process from inputs (sensors, tranceducers and transmitters) that tyapically mesure temperature, flow, humidity, pressure or level, and outputs to final controlled devices to adjust a process variable based on a preset parameters, also recives a feedback signals from inputs again to further adjust signal command errors for best results based again on the setpoints. Digital inputs are Dry contacts from a control device, analog inputs are voltage and current signals that mesure variables such as humidity, pressure, level or flow form sensing devices and converted to percentage. Digital outputs are of 1 or 0 binary that either stops or starts equipments via a relay, analog outputs are voltage or current signals that control a process variable control devices such as valves, m otors or dampers. The DDC program code may be customized for intended use such as: Time schedule, sequence of operation, trend logs, alarms. 2.1 Elements of a DDC As described above, the three functional elements needed to perform the functions of a DDC system are: a) A measurement element (Sensor, prob, Transmitter, Transducer) b) An error detection element (Digital/Analog/pneumatic Controller, PCU) c) A final control element (Motor/Piston Actuator, VFD, VSD, Relay) 2.2 DDC controled mediums The DDC controls two variables: I. A controlled variable is the process variable that is maintained at a specified value or within a specified range. II. A manipulated variable is the process that is acted on by the control system to maintain the controlled variable at the specified value or within the specified range. 1 2.3 Functions of DDC system In any DDC, the four basic functions that occur are: a) Measurement b) Comparison c) Computation d) Correction 3. DDC LAN-WAN Configuration DDC is where mechanical and electrical systems and equipment are joined with microprocessors that communicate with each other and to a central computer BMS. This computer and controllers in the building Management system can be networked to the internet or serve as a stand alone system for the local peer-to-peer controller network only Fig 1. Additionally, the controllers themselves do not need a computer to operate efficiently as many of these controllers are designed to operate as stand-alone controllers and control the specific equipment they are assigned to control. Fig 1. Typical peer-to-peer controller network  2 With a few exceptions, each DDC or building automation controller holds their own programs and has the ability to communicate to other DDC building automation controllers. It is important for the DDC or building automation controllers to communicate to each other. If the network fails for whatever reason then the system may still function (because the DDC controllers in a BMS system are stand-alone) but it will not function as efficiently as designed. The DDC/BMS system can be configured as independent (localized) closed-system, or DDC open-system based on accessibility options required by a group of buildings managed by a single company or property management firm (centralized), or a single property to be monitored and controlled by its own (localized) Fig 2. Fig 2. DDC/BMS LAN/WAN configuration  3 3.1 BACnet compatibility BACnet is the term commonly used to refer to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135- 1995, adopted and supported by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). BACnet stands for Building Automation and Control network. BACnet is a true, non-proprietary open protocol communication standard conceived by a consortium of building management, system users and manufacturers . A closed protocol is a proprietary protocol used by a specific equipment manufacturer. An open protocol system uses a protocol available to anyone, but not published by a standards organization. A standard protocol system uses a protocol available to anyone. It is created by a standards organization. Open Systems: An open system is defined as a system that allows components from different manufacturers to co-exist on the same network. These components would not need a gateway to communicate with one another and would not require a manufacturer specific workstation to visualize data. This would allow more than one vendors product to meet a specific application requirement. The DDC/BMS BACnet based LANs and Sub-LANs can be accessed, controlled and monitored from remote locations via the Internet trough a centralized data management system which is capable of collecting data from multiple sites. This is accomplished by connecting with a gateway for collecting data from the lighting and air-conditioning control systems installed in each building or factory, and the center server for providing data collection, database and web server functions along with security measures applied to all transmitted data. Based on the capability of real-time monitoring and analysis of actual energy consumption such as electricity and gas from a remote location by using a web browser, this system is able to achieve the maximum level of energy saving in buildings and factories which in turn, reduce the emissions and the environmental impacts by taking advantage of its cost effectiveness and by limiting the required energy for a specific application or function. 4 Fig 3, Integrated BACnet based WEB Browser BMS Control System Layout  5 4. DDC/BMS integrated features, application and functions 4.1 Energy saving DDC/BMS allows the owner to set up schedules of operation for the equipment and lighting systems so that energy savings can be realized when the building or spaces in the building are unoccupied. Have algorithms as reset schedules for heating plants, static pressure control, and other systems where energy savings can be realized through these predictive programs. 4.2 Human comfort (thermal Comfort) DDC/BMS system allows the equipment optimal start with pre-scheduled program. Optimal start is allowing the equipment to be brought on in an ordered and sequential manner automatically on a schedule before the building is reoccupied so that space set points can be realized before occupation. Event sequence programming features allow the system to compare space temperature, outside air conditions, and equipment capabilities so that the equipment can be turned on at an appropriate time to ensure space set points are achieved before occupation. Have trim and respond capabilities. Based on zone demand the set point for various heating and cooling sources will change according to demand from the zones. For instance, in a Variable Air Volume system, all the VAV boxes are served from a central air handling unit. If all the zones are at set point then the supply air temperature set point of the air handler is automatically changed to prevent mechanical cooling from occurring when it is unnecessary. When the zones grow warmer the supply air temperature set point is automatically lowered to allow mechanical cooling to satisfy demand. In conjunction with the appropriate mechanical system set-up, offer economizing based on enthalpy calculations and/or CO2 set point control. 4.3 Long-term rebound effects Offer load shedding when power companies are at peak demand and need business and industry to cut-back on power usage to prevent black outs. Building Management systems for instance, allow the owner to cycle various things off like water heaters or drinking fountains where use of these things- 6 -will not be noticed even though they are off. Management companies who acquire a good DDC/BMS can set up the system to bill tenants for energy usage (fewer employees required). 4.4 Proactive Ability to send alarms via email, pager, or telephone to alert building managers and/or technicians of the developing problems, and system failures. 4.5 Other applications and compatibilities Have the ability to monitor energy usage including the ability to meter electric, gas, water, steam, hot water, chilled water, and fuel oil services. Have the communications abilities to be integrated with other buildings via WAN setup using the standardized TCP/IP family of protocols. It is BACnet base web browser compatible and other open source communication protocol which allows the system to be accessed via the web browser from remote locations. (Refer to 4.2) 5. High-performance Low-energy HVAC design Recall the Introduction, In addition to BMS/DDC System application for energy saving and high HVAC system performance, a green HVAC system design will achieve all aspects of comfort, energy saving, low initial and operational capital costs, and adds more efficient performance in conjunction with the DDC system, an example of such green HVAC system would be an Optimal Air System . Optimal Air System concept, idea and example are taken from McQuay Air Conditionning/2002 McQuay International/Application Guide AG 31-005 as an example to illustrate its benefits for energy saving, human comfort, lower initial cost and long term rebound effects. Optimal Air systems uses less energy than conventional systems on an annual basis, for example, In a conventional system, supply air temperatures run between 54Ã °F -57Ã °F from the air handling unit. With duct heat gain, the supply air ranges from approximately 56Ã °F-59Ã °F out of the air diffuser. 7 In Optimal Air System, supply air temperature run between 45-52Ã °F from the air handling unit to optimize energy consumption, reduce first capital cost and improve humidity control. Optimal Air has for years been extensively used in grocery stores and is gaining increasing popularity in comfort cooling applications such as offices and schools. 5.1 Advantages There are several benefits of Optimal Air that make it an attractive system for use in a wide variety of applications. It Saves Space and Reduces Energy and Construction Costs, increases the amount of sensible heat that each CFM delivered to a zone can absorb. While 50Ã °F air may not seem much colder than 55Ã °F air, the delta T rises from 20Ã °F to 25Ã °F. That is an increase of 25%. This affects the sizing of the ducts, air handling units and fan motors, all of which will be smaller and results in a system that requires less space and uses less power. In many applications, fans can use more power annually than refrigeration (chillers, condensing units, pumps, and compressors). An example of annual 10-story building energy usage of 200,000 square-feet of HVAC components, the fan energy use is high because the fans operate every hour the building is occupied providing minimum air movement, ventilation air, heating, etc. In this case, an Optimal Air system would have a very real impact on overall energy costs. Fig 4, Annual HVAC Energy Usage  8 5.2 Less Humidity, more comfort Optimal Air systems take more moisture out of the return and ventilation air mixture as it passes over the cooling coil. The lower moisture content in the supply air reduces the Psychrometric balance point humidity level in the conditioned space. This allows the space temperature to be set higher while achieving the same comfort level for occupants and further reduces the supply air quantity and fan power requirement. 5.3 Quieter and Improve Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) The lower air volume required for Optimal Air systems makes them quieter than conventional systems. Fan sound generation is a function of fan type, static pressure and air volume. By reducing air volume (and often the total fan static pressure) Optimal Air systems generate lower fan sound which can result in more desirable space conditions. This reduced sound generation can also be used to reduce the cost of any required noise attenuation in critical applications. The lower required air volume can also be used to reduce filter face velocities, allowing more efficient filters to be used without high energy cost penalties. The lower air temperature and resultant humidity levels also reduce the chance of mold growth in the air handling units, ducts or the occupied space. The example of the building above requires a supply air of 26,667 CFM. The HVAC system is floor by floor VAV air handling units with a two chiller primary secondary system, Optimal air works equally well with applied rooftop units or indoor vertical self-contained units. Table 1, HVAC system performance with optimal air system  9 Table 1 shows the HVAC system performance as the supply air temperature, to the duct, is lowered. It is important to differentiate between supply air temperature off the cooling coil and supply air temperature into the duct. To accommodate the lower supply air temperature, the chilled water supply temperature (CWST) was gradually lowered, the air handling unit coils deepened to allow for closer approaches, and chiller performance was adjusted to deal will the increased lift. Because of their basic operating differences, DX rooftop and self-contained systems may have a different Optimal Air temperature than a chilled water system. When considering multiple system options, it is important to use Energy Analyzer for each in order to identify the best option. 5.4 Optimal Air Balance Point Reduced fan energy must be traded off against increased refrigeration energy. This trade off varies with the type of building, the type temperature control system, the type air conditioning system and geographic locale. Therefore, the optimal supply air temperature is different for every job. When only energy costs are a factor and no thermal storage is involved, this optimal supply air temperature generally falls in the 47Ã °F -52Ã °F range. It can be determined by comparing total system energy consumption with varying supply air temperatures using an energy analysis program. 5.5 Space Design Temperature and Related Comfort Temperature, humidity, air velocity and mean radiant temperature directly influence occupant comfort. Conventional designs are usually based on maintaining 75Ã °F and 50% RH (Relative Humidity) in the occupied space. Figure 5 shows the ASHRAE comfort zone where 80% of the people engaged in light office work are satisfied. As the relative humidity is lowered, the space air temperature can be raised and still provide occupant comfort. The leaving air condition from the air handling unit is the primarily control of the relative humidity in the occupied space. The internal moisture gains from people, kitchens, etc, as well as infiltration also play a part. 10 Fig 5, Equivalent comfort chart  In most climates, the lower the supply air temperature, the lower the humidity ratio and the drier the space. Figure 5 shows sensible heat ratio lines for conventional, Optimal and low supply air temperatures. As the space relative humidity is lowered, the space temperature set-point rises from 74Ã °F to 78Ã °F. 5.6 ASHRAE Compliance The 1999 and 2001 version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings , has mandatory requirements for refrigeration equipment and prescriptive requirements for fan work. The Standard recognizes that Optimal Air systems improve fan work significantly and provides credits to account for improved fan performance. In addition, refrigeration system performance is rated at conventional conditions or special tables are provided to account for non-standard operating conditions (as is the case with centrifugal chillers). In either case, ASHRAE Standard 90.1 does not penalize Optimal Air systems. 11 5.7 Design Considerations Design of refrigeration and air handling equipment for an Optimal Air system is similar to the design of a conventional air temperature system. Attention must be paid, however, to air distribution, controls and duct design. Conventional diffusers, when properly applied, will work with Optimal Air. Controls also require only minor changes from conventional systems. In particular, programming of economizer controls and supply air temperature reset. Finally, the ducting system must be sized for the reduced air volume to take full advantage of the potential capital savings. Duct insulation and sweating should also be reviewed to provide a trouble free system. Not every building type is a good candidate for Optimal Air. When air volumes are dictated by air turnover rates, such as some health care applications, Optimal Air offers no advantage. In fact, there would be increased reheat costs. Office buildings are a strong candidate for Optimal Air. They have high sensible heat ratios and typically less than 20% ventilation loads. Schools can also be a possibility. Generally speaking, as the percentage ventilation load increases, Optimal Air becomes less attractive. Location and climate also impact whether or not Optimal Air is a good candidate. Locations where weather provides significant economizer hours between 45 and 55Ã °F will limit the savings. Ultimately, each project must be checked by performing the applicable specific calculations. The following should be considered: Load and Balance Point calculations, Space Temperature Set-point evaluation, Design Load Calculation, Primary and Secondary System Selection, Parallel, mixing or series VAV-Fan powered boxes, Perimeter Heating, Air Distribution, Diffusers (based on air flow and the throw distance calculation), Duct design (considering duct heat gain, sweating and insulation). 5.8 System Life-Cycle Analysis Evaluating different engineering solutions is always part of a good proposal. Optimal Air systems are no different. 12 In the case of Optimal Air, there may be no need to do any calculations because Optimal Air systems cost less to build (lower capital cost) and have the same operating cost as conventional systems (assuming the balance point was used for the design). Duct sizing will decrease almost linearly with reduction in air volume. The installed cost will not change linearly because of the labor portion. A 20% reduction in air volume can result in 80% savings of the 20% reduction or 16% overall savings in sheet metal cost. On the plus side, there are less pounds of steel and fewer man-hours to install it. On the minus side there is more insulation. Terminal boxes and diffusers will be a wash since there are fewer of them but the equipment cost will be higher than conventional equipment. HVAC equipment will cost about the same. This is conservative because the air handling equipment will cost less and refrigeration equipment will be slightly more. There is typically more capital invested in air handling than refrigeration. Building envelope should be the same for new construction. In the case of retrofit applications, it will depend on the quality of the existing building. The cost of space may also need to be evaluated. Not accounting for space savings is conservative. There will be space savings but they may be difficult to realize. If enough plenum height savings can be realized to add another floor within the same building envelope, then that rentable space should be accounted for. Simple payback calculations do not take into account the cost of money, taxes and depreciation, inflation, maintenance or increases in the cost of energy. A more complete analysis should include Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). In the HVAC industry, many projects fail simple back (they are in the 5-year range) while passing IRR (they offer a 25% rate of return). Software analysis tools can be used to perform both energy and life-cycle analysis that include simple payback, IRR and NPV. 13 6. Conclusion Building owners and designers faced with increased concerns for energy saving and environmental stewardship search for cost effective system options for their projects. The DDC, integrated with a high-performance low-energy HVAC system as the Optimal Air system can deliver both low first costs and reduced energy costs in a new construction and retrofit applications. This integrated system will not only meet the efficiency and sustainability of its performance at the desired set-parameters, but when designed with advanced selection tools, installed with the most advanced DDC/BMS system, and supported by trained operators, will achieve both energy saving and long term rebound effect (pay-back), maximum human thermal comfort, in addition, it allows building owners to compare predicted energy use to actual performance, this leads to a flexible budgeting, further future system adjustment and energy consumption cut-back. The whole integrated DDC/BMS HVAC system function will also contribute in the environmental impacts reduction. In todays challenging energy efficiency, building owners need proven system that delivers the necessary performance to meet their integrated environmental sustainability and business goals .
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Tuskegee Airman For my term paper I chose the Tuskegee Airman. They will alway be the most influential air squadron during WWII. I think this because there where a lot racist people that did not want them to succeed, but they did more than just succeed. They became the first black Air Force pilots. It all started when President Roosevelt arranged a meeting in September 1940 with three African-American leaders and members of the Army and Navy. During the meeting, the leaders emphasized three points:(1)equal opportunity for jobs in the defense industry, (2)impartial administration of the new draftlaw, and (3)an opportunity for qualified blacks to learn to fly in desegrated units.*1* A few days later after the meeting, the War Department issued a policy directives stating that black men generally would be admitted into the armed force in numbers equivalent to their percentage in the civilian population. But it was not until a couple months after the meeting in December 1940, that the Army Air Corps submitted a plan for the experiment to establish an all-black fighter squadron. The plan was not official until July 19, 1941 when Major General Walter Weaver, commander of the U.S. ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s Southeastern Air Corps spoke at the Tuskegee Institute Campus.*2* It was then that 13 black men became the first black pilot trainees. Most of the trainees were college graduates, including a policeman, an army officer, a factory inspector, and several young men who were fresh out of college. Also, all of the men were trained at Chanute Air Field in Ratoul, Illinois at the US Army Air Corps Technical Training School. The men of... ...groups. But it was not until 1948 that President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order. This order eventually ended segregation in the US military. In this paper I have represented my thesis statement with good facts and hard evidence that the Tuskegee Airman were and always will be the most influential fighter unit during WWII. Bibliography: Bilbiography #1.Mckissack, Patricia and Fredrick Red Tail Angles United States : Walker Publishing Company, 1995. #2.Harris, Jacqueline The Tuskegee Airman New Jersey: Dillon Press,1996. #3.Hart Philip S. Fly Free Minneapolis,Minnesota: Lerner Publications Company,1992. #4.Rose Robert A. Lonely Eagles Los Angelos,CA: Tuskegee Airman Inc. #5. Ã¢â¬Å"Tuskegee Airman:A Brief HistoryÃ¢â¬ Tuskegee Airman November 26,1999 http://www.ebonywings.com/tuskegee
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems Introduction Throughout the years, advances in technology and scientific development have greatly influenced our global community. Various anthropogenic factors, such as the increased combustion of fossil fuels and widespread usage of manmade chemicals, have greatly affected the planet's atmosphere and it's ozone layer. Ozone Depletion The stratospheric ozone layer is the Earth's natural means of protection from the Sun's damaging ultraviolet rays. Some of the chemicals most harmful to the ozone layer are chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. These compounds are chemically inert gasses that, when introduced to the stratosphere, speed up the depletion of the ozone layer. The reason that these chemicals are so harmful is that after a CFC molecule is broken up by UV radiation in the stratosphere, its Chlorine atom is free to react with the ozone molecules in the atmosphere. Because Chlorine is a catalyst, it continues to react with other ozone molecules causing continuous damage and depletion of the ozone, as can be seen from the chart of CFC reactions below. As the ozone layer continues to be depleted, more harmful ultraviolet rays are able to penetrate the earth's atmosphere and are absorbed by its surface. Although the sun's emissions of UV rays remain constant, decreases in stratospheric ozone levels cause a reduction in the Earth's protection from the sun's harmful rays. Research has recently shown that over exposure to UV-B radiation can impair the body's ability to fight off disease, in addition to causing skin cancer and a range of eye disorders. Ultraviolet radiation also deleteriously affects plant growth by reducing leaf size and the... ...mental effects on marine life and the aquatic food chain. Further damage to the earth's aquatic ecosystems must be prevented in order to prevent not only the deterioration of oceanic life, but also the deterioration of the planet and its diverse life forms. By ceasing CFC usage and implementing substitutes, as well as through decreasing fossil fuel emissions and the release of other chemicals into the atmosphere, we can attempt to conserve what remains of the ozone layer and thus impede the increasing penetration of UV rays into the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. The safety of the planet and its organisms rests on the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer. If the depletion of stratospheric ozone continues, it will result in the deterioration of the phytoplankton which is an important base to the aquatic food chain on which most marine and animal life depends. Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems Essays The Effect of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems Introduction Throughout the years, advances in technology and scientific development have greatly influenced our global community. Various anthropogenic factors, such as the increased combustion of fossil fuels and widespread usage of manmade chemicals, have greatly affected the planet's atmosphere and it's ozone layer. Ozone Depletion The stratospheric ozone layer is the Earth's natural means of protection from the Sun's damaging ultraviolet rays. Some of the chemicals most harmful to the ozone layer are chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. These compounds are chemically inert gasses that, when introduced to the stratosphere, speed up the depletion of the ozone layer. The reason that these chemicals are so harmful is that after a CFC molecule is broken up by UV radiation in the stratosphere, its Chlorine atom is free to react with the ozone molecules in the atmosphere. Because Chlorine is a catalyst, it continues to react with other ozone molecules causing continuous damage and depletion of the ozone, as can be seen from the chart of CFC reactions below. As the ozone layer continues to be depleted, more harmful ultraviolet rays are able to penetrate the earth's atmosphere and are absorbed by its surface. Although the sun's emissions of UV rays remain constant, decreases in stratospheric ozone levels cause a reduction in the Earth's protection from the sun's harmful rays. Research has recently shown that over exposure to UV-B radiation can impair the body's ability to fight off disease, in addition to causing skin cancer and a range of eye disorders. Ultraviolet radiation also deleteriously affects plant growth by reducing leaf size and the... ...mental effects on marine life and the aquatic food chain. Further damage to the earth's aquatic ecosystems must be prevented in order to prevent not only the deterioration of oceanic life, but also the deterioration of the planet and its diverse life forms. By ceasing CFC usage and implementing substitutes, as well as through decreasing fossil fuel emissions and the release of other chemicals into the atmosphere, we can attempt to conserve what remains of the ozone layer and thus impede the increasing penetration of UV rays into the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. The safety of the planet and its organisms rests on the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer. If the depletion of stratospheric ozone continues, it will result in the deterioration of the phytoplankton which is an important base to the aquatic food chain on which most marine and animal life depends.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
"The superior man, when resting in safety, does not forget that danger may come. When in a state of security he does not forget the possibility of ruin. When all is orderly, he does not forget that disorder may come. Thus his person is not endangered, and his States and all their clans are preserved.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Confucius -- Confucianism created the Chinese view of life. The Confucian view is based on the ancient Chinese tradition. It can be stated that the view of Confucius and that of the Chinese began in the same place (Ã Bush, 15). In subsequent centuries ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings exerted a powerful influence on the Chinese nation. Therefore, the history that surrounds both Confucius as well as Confucianism is relevant to how many eastern people live their life today. Confucius was born in 551B.C., to the noble KÃ¢â¬â¢ung family. He was born in the state of Lu, which is present day the Shandong in the Shantung Province. ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ real name was ChÃ¢â¬â¢iu, which means a hill. This was because there was a noticeable bump on his head. His literary name however is Chung-ni. These names have been rarely used because of the Chinese practice of showing reverence by avoidance. KÃ¢â¬â¢ung Futzu which means the Great Master has been his most popular name (DeVous and Slote 9). Confucius was born into an impoverished noble family. At the time of his birth, the imperial court of the Chou dynasty had lost its power and the empire virtually disintegrated into a number of feudal states. ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ father who was the commander of a district in Lu died three years after Confucius was born. This left the family in poverty (DeVous and Slote 12). Nevertheless, Confucius received an upscale education. Even in his childhood, Confucius liked to play ceremonies, whi... ... Walter H. Slote ed. Confucianism and the Family. New York: State University, 1998. Fowler, Jeaneane D., Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices. Brighton:Sussex Academic, 2008. Print. Mungello, David E. Leibniz and Confucianism the Search for Accord. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1977. Robinson, B.A. Ã¢â¬Å"Religion in China.Ã¢â¬ Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 17 Jun. 2005. Web. 10. April. 2014.Ã Nivison, David S. The Ways of Confucianism. ed. Bryan W. Van Norden. Chicago: Carus Publishing Company, 1996. Overmyer, Daniel. "Religion in China Today: Introduction."Ã China QuarterlyÃ (2003): 307-316. Web. 21 Jun 2014. Twitchett, Denis and Arthur F. Wright ed. Confucian Personalities. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962. Wolf, Arthur P. ed. Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
A post-structuralism reading looks into this hierarchy in order to show that is not sustained throughout such works, or showing that he two terms are not oppositional but are interdependent and interrelated (Senators 145). There is philosophical acknowledgement of the fact that what human beings experience and claim to know about this world appear just only as they are understood by the human mind.Hence, there is a division created between the mental appearance and the Ã¢â¬Å"things in themselves. Ã¢â¬ This sets stage for limitability of such work as incorporates division of the things and the words, condition of discourses for the appearance of things inside our knowledge or the systems of truth versus the real things in the material world.Furthermore Dermis's prose is usually difficult since he IS made aware of the problems of metallurgy, that is, the phrases, terms, metaphors and vocabulary as used in the description of culture and philosophy as expressed in words, and the turn s and twists of metaphor and rhetoric we buy into when making and writing arguments (Wise 89). Deconstruction doesn't mean demolition of truth or reality, but subverting illusions in our ideologies and engage that pretend to raise unquestionable universal or natural grounds for belief and knowledge.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Google Inc. began in 1996 as the brainchild of two bright computer science grad students, Sergey Brin and Larry Page. These two intellectually gifted men met in 1995 at Stanford University where they were doing their PhDs. During their time together at Stanford, both came up with creative ways of finding and organizing large amounts of data. After that, Brin and Page developed a technology called PageRank that enabled them to analyze a particular websiteÃ¢â¬â¢s significance. The idea of a search engine occurred to Brin and Page after they came up with the idea for PageRank. The search engine was based on the on the same algorithm that PageRank used, but would be much more effective at obtaining better and accurate results than existing search engines. The idea soon became the world famous search engine simply known as Google that was launched on September 15, 1997. Brin and PageÃ¢â¬â¢s company was formally incorporated on September 4, 1998 at an acquaintanceÃ¢â¬â¢s garage in Me nlo Park, California. Google, a play on words, received its name from Ã¢â¬Å"googolÃ¢â¬ , the mathematical equivalent of the number one followed by a hundred zeros. Naming the company Google was seen by both Brin and Page as the perfect way to reflect their original mission to Ã¢â¬Å"organize the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information and make it universally accessible and usefulÃ¢â¬ . Over the years, Google has become so popular that is has gained a vast number of followers who liked its simple design and useful results. In 2000, Google began selling text-based advertisements associated with search keywords in order to maintain an uncluttered page design so that speed is maximized when loading a page. Their innovative advertising system, comprised of its AdWords and AdSense products, is so successful that 99% of their revenue is derived from it. However, the technological industry demands constant innovation and GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s strong focus on continuous improvement is reflected in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ever expanding line of innovative services and products that includes webmail (Gmail), blogging (Blogger), and interactive maps (Google Maps). GoogleÃ¢â¬ â¢s strong organizational culture that includes values such as creativity, simplicity and innovation plays a huge role in their tremendous success and gives them a huge competitive advantage over their rivals in the search engine market.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
I. Introduction Thesis Statement The learning of Lasallian students are affected by the inflexible relationship between education and socioeconomic status. A. Background of the Study 1. The Socioeconomic Classes in the Philippines According to National Center for Economic Statistics (2008), when analyzing a familyÃ¢â¬â¢s SES, the household income, earnersÃ¢â¬â¢ education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed. Family Income and Expenditure Survey of the National Statistical Coordination Board (2010) shows the statistics hierarchal socioeconomic classes of differences in the Philippines that the Higher Class Family or A class are the top 5% (5 million people) Ã¢â¬â P25,000 to, millions of dollars, and billions of pesos those are Filipinos that are Senior Politicians, Land owners, Large Business Owners and Middle Class Family or B class which comprises 10-15% population which estimated 10-15 million Filipino people with wages of P15,000 Ã¢â¬â 25,000 a month that consists of Mid-Level Politicians, Professionals Ã¢â¬â doctors, engineers, superv isors and lastly Low Class Family that composes of 20%, equivalent to 20million Filipino people with a salary of P5,000 -15,000 a month they are the skilled craftsman, teachers and nurses as well as bank clerks and retail shop assistants. 2. Education in the Philippines Dr. Romulo Virola of Philippine Education (2009) has shown that Philippine spend only 3.3% of GDP (Gender Disparity ) on public educational institutions for all levels of education ;this is lower than 7.4% for Malaysia , 4.0% for Thailand, 4.0% for all WEI (World Education Indicators) and 5.2 % average for OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemier, &Maczuga, 2009). Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth; this is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources if our government continue to develop this kind of education. The famous quotation (Dr. Jose P. Rizal, 1898) Ã¢â¬Å"The youth is the hope of our futureÃ¢â¬ will only be just a collection of poetry from RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s books. In the Philippines there is a two kind of schools the public schools which is under the supervision of DepEd (Department of Education)while the private schools which under the administration of CHED (Commission on Higher Education), and according to Willy Blackwell (2010) Private schools tend to have better funding than public schools. The additional funding from the private schools means more access to resources which could result to enhance better academic performance but hence most private schools in the Philippines have higher tuition fee than in public schools with 95 percent of all elementary students attending public schools, the educational crisis in the Philippines is basically a crisis of public education. The wealthy can easily send their offspring to private schools, many of which offer first-class education t o the privileged class of pupils. 3. The La Salle University in Ozamiz City La Salle University (LSU), formerly known as Immaculate Conception College-La Salle, is a member school of De La Salle Philippines located in Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. Its quality in Education and the best approaches had joined efforts of the school administration, faculty and staff in catering to the needs of their learners, provided the students the use of technology in instruction, and the system that the university is using in almost all of its tasks is computer-based. The campus is also equipped with Wi-Fi hotspots, computer terminals are also present inside, and to better facilitate learning, four audio-visual rooms are available for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and faculty use, each equipped with a high-end LCD/DLP projector and a laptop or a PC, these technologies equipped the students and the teachers with the skills and the knowledge in integrating technology for instruction. (www.lsu.edu.ph). While, For the past 2 years the socioeconomic profile of the students enrolled in LSU according to Mrs. Tagaylo that the number of students is approximately six thousand nine hundred forty-seven (6,947), whereas the number of working students according to Mrs. Prosadas and Mr. Saplad is nearly five hundred fifty-two (552), and as we subtract the number of working students to the total number of students enrolled it resulted that the regular students are approximately six thousand three hundred ninety-five (6,395), and it shows that the working students comprise only 1/3 of the total number of population in LSU, as a result the socioeconomic profile of the students in La Salle University, highly belong in upper level in the socioeconomic classes in the Philippines. A. Statement of Purpose The researchers want to learn the impact of the correlationship between socioeconomic status and education to the learning of the Lasallian students. Specifically this study aims to answer the following questions: 1. How do socioeconomic statuses of the students affect their academic performance? 2. How does socioeconomic status affect to the psychological aspect of the students? 3. How socioeconomic status and education correlate each other? B. Definition of Terms Socioeconomic Status (SES) Ã¢â¬â an economic and sociological combined total measures of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s work experiences (www.thesaurus.com). Quality of Education Ã¢â¬âdegree of excellence in developing knowledge and skills (www.nb.edu.ph). Occupation Ã¢â¬â an employment of a person under service performed for payment (www.dictionary.com). Academic Achievements Ã¢â¬â the outcome of the education of the school extent that has attained an educational goal (www.nb.edu.ph). School Ã¢â¬â an institution for instruction of being educated formally to develop knowledge and skills (www.thesaurus.com). Socioeconomic Classes- social standing of an individual or group (www.journalclass.com). II. METHODOLOGY A. Research design This study used descriptive method where in the researchers gathered information about the target respondents. This study is investigative in nature the researchers made questionnaires. B. Respondents and Locale The respondents were randomly selected 15 male and 15 female working students and 15 male and 15 female regular students here in La Salle University Ozamiz City, enrolled in different colleges. C. Materials The researchers use questionnaires in order to conduct survey to the respondents. D. Test taking Procedure The researchers conducted surveys that were randomly given to selected 15 male and 15 female working students and 15 male and 15 female regular students in La Salle University, Ozamiz City. In addition, observation was constituted in order to determine the effect of socioeconomic status of the students here at La Salle University, Ozamiz City. E. Data Collection The researchers collected data from references that were found in books, internet sources and compress the ideas in the result from the survey they had conducted.
Presentation of the Facts Surrounding the Case The case examines a dispute between Meg Cooke, DSSÃ¢â¬â¢s COO and Chris Peterson, newly appointed Southwest RegionÃ¢â¬â¢s team leader. Cooke appointed Peterson a leadership role for one of the newly structured cross-functional teams designated to create a new integrated budget and planning system. The cross functional teams were tasked with building relationships with existing school districts in their regions and provide them a full range of DSS services and to develop new consulting offerings in response to the districtÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. (Case 2010) Theses goals were created to facilitate a transition to servicing larger districts rather than the smaller districts, which DSS based it past structure around. Peterson was responsible for creating a successful and efficient team within DSSÃ¢â¬â¢s reorganization. The team was responsible for designing and creating an integrated budget and planning system with in a time frame of six months. Cooke was updated of the status and objecti ves of the project periodically. The meeting were short and not effective for either party. After the six month deadline was reached Peterson met with Cooke to provide an update on the status of the project her group had been working on. Cooke decided that PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s project would be discontinued, her team would be reorganized and would not be involved in futures product development. Peterson was convinced that her team and project were excellent. Further examination of the case reveals that there may be significant problems related to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s transition and Cooke role as COO. Cooke has several deficiencies in the area of leadership, management style, communication, and teamwork and change management. Regarding Peterson, her exemplary team management and teamwork resulted in group-think, causing her team to lose the ability to make unbiased decisions and effectively evaluate possible risks and alternatives. Identification of the Key Issue(s) Many issued are related to the substantial strategic and organizational changes taking place at DSS. Peterson and Cooke have varied perspectives relating to leadership, management style, communication, teamwork, organizational culture, and change management. CookeÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership is characterized by low regard for creating systems for getting the job doneÃ and for creating a satisfying and motivating work environment. The outcome of such leadership style is disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony. Collected evidence suggest that Cooke provided very little leadership to Peterson. Peterson and other associates felt anxious for the uncertainty on how the new organizational strategy would unfold. Cooke was only interested in the outcome of what Peterson and her team were working on at the end of the six month period. Cooke did not pose any questions and did not ask for any status updates throughout the projects duration. When Peterson asked for support for her group and the task they were working on, Cooke did not provide any direct action. Other DSS associates felt that Cooke was playing favorites. Cooke did not involve her employs to feel involved and understand the organizations new purpose and determine the production needs. When employees are committed to and have an interest in the organization success, production and moral typically coincide with positive outcomes. This leads to the organization successfully meeting the designated goals. The ability to have employees buy in to desired goals are promoted by an organizational environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a consequence, high production. ( MindTools). Cooke gave Peterson the ability to choose her own team members, projects, and location of operations. Cooke did so in a passive manner. In the following follow-up meeting Cooke never expressed any objections to Peterson actions and plans, but when she did present a problem concerning the assistance she required form management and other supporting operations, Cooke dismissed her claims by stating that she would provide the needed help at a later time. PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and management style influenced her teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, while CookeÃ¢â¬â¢s absence of communication and guidance lead to wasted time and resources on a system that did not meet DSS goals. Listing Alternative Courses of Action That Could Be Taken Better communication needs to be created between mid and upper management. Proper communication will lead to a better understanding of the goals desired. Feedback is provided by upward communication, which makes employees feel involved and can help managers to get employees to understand their concerns (Thrilwall, 2012). Cooke and Peterson communicated scarcely and poorly. No regular meeting were scheduled. When the two did communicateÃ there was no clear and actionable dialogue. Communication is only successful when both the sender and receiver understand the same information as a result of communication ( MindTools, n.d.) Both Cooke and Peterson should establish regular structured communication. This can be accomplished by setting periodic meetings, written updates via e-mail or memos. These meeting will provide downward communication that will allow information to be dispensed to the team working on the projects in question. These meeting will make Peterson and her team feel mor e involved in the direction of the project and it will also keep Cooke abreast of the attitudes and values of her employees. Cooke can defuse any potential problems before they have a negative impact on the group and the project. CookeÃ¢â¬â¢s could adjust her management style. Her methods when dealing with Peterson and her team lead to confusion. Her managerial control and direction were minimal, due the delegation of direction to Peterson, which allowed her to act with maximum freedom. Peterson was allowed to develop a specific product for a small district regardless of the new DSS strategy to refocus its resources on acquiring larger school districts. Cooke needs to focus on redirecting Peterson and her team to achieving the newly desired mission the organization has set in place. That includes providing a direction and strategy which will integrate the individual and the organization ( Thirlwall, 2012). Peterson displayed her ability to effectively act independently. If Cooke would have provided more control pertaining to the direction Peterson and her group were heading the negative outcome could hav e been avoided. Evaluation of Alternative Courses of Action Better communication needs to be created between mid and upper management. Establishing better communication can provide several benefits for DSS. The first, which would be a necessity for any future DSS strategy to be successful would be team building. Team building can transition an organizations culture from cooperation to collaboration. By establishing team environment employees will feel they are a part of something. The feeling of being involved in something increases the effort employees will place in projects and designated task. Better communication also creates a culture of transparency. When companies encourage employees to communicate honestly without fear of repercussions, transparency will transform from anÃ ideal to a reality. An environment of honesty promotes respect amongst employees. An increase in communication and honesty can cause increased revenue and innovation. Cooke could adjust her management style. Cooke must be willing to make the needed adjustments to improve her management style. She first needs to understand herself. She has to recognize her flaws, not just in the situation with Peterson but her role in DSS organization. She also has to recognize her strengths. Her ability to identify her strengths and weakness will allow her to build a stronger relationship with her employees. The bonds that she can build with her employees and peers will be reflective of her interpersonal communication skills. This reflection will provide insight into areas in the organization and within herself that require improvement. Cooke will need to continually re-evaluate her management style. Being able to realize what works and what doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t is key to being an effective manager ( WordPress, 2009) Recommendation of the Best Course of Action The best course of action is for DSS to create a standard outline for communication prior to and during the lifespan of a project. These guidelines should include timing and require length of meetings, scheduled times for updates via e-mail or in person meetings. Also they should provide the specification for any information that needs to be provided to all person involved in the project in question. The information should be pertinent to the status of the project and personal. Also the supply of information should allow as a segue to any questions or concerns by either party. An open dialogue should be the basis of all communication throughout the projects duration. References MindTools, n.d. Blake Mouton Managerial Grid. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm [Accessed 16 June 2012 MindTools, n.d. Introduction to Communication Skills. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from http://mindtools.com/CommSkll/CommunicationIntro.htm [Accessed 18 June 2012] Organizational Behavior and HRM. Unpublished ed. Emirates Aviation College.Thirlwall, A., 2012. Ineffective leadership in Business, Retrieved from July 22, 2014 btrostle.wordpress.com/2009/11/16/adjusting-your-management-style/